Tag Archive: syllabary



Badly damaged, but still largely legible Linear A tablet from Gournia in Mycenaean derived Greek:

Minoan-Crete-Gournia-Linear-A

Gournia Crete

Although this tablet is badly damaged, the text remains legible. The word kadusi is instrumental plural for a bucket or pail, while daro is a piece of wood (burning/on fire). As for the single syllabogram RO on the first line of the RECTO, it looks very much like it is the last syllable for udoro, which is the word for water in Mycenaean Linear A. So while this tablet is inscribed in the Linear A syllabary, it must have been written just before the adoption of Linear B as the new syllabary. 2 roundels from Gournia were composed ca. 1600 BCE, but this damaged tablet must have been inscribed later, ca. 1500-1450 BCE.


Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 969 words, the most complete Linear A Lexicon ever by far, with at least 250 terms more than Prof. John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon:

comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 969 words

At this juncture in my ongoing endeavour to decipher Linear A, I have run across so many tablets with New Minoan Mycenaean derived superstratum words that I am confident I am well on the way to deciphering New Minoan. Such is not the case with Old Minoan, i.e. the original Minoan language a.k.a. the Minoan substratum. But even there I have managed to decipher at least 100 words more or less accurately, bringing the total of Old Minoan, New Minoan and pre-Greek substratum vocabulary to around 250 out of the 969 Linear A words I have isolated in my Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon, by far the most complete Linear A Lexicon ever to appear online, exceeding Prof. John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon by at least 250.

Since this new Lexicon is so large and I intend to publish it soon in its entirety on my academia.edu account, there is no point rehashing it here. Instead, I shall tantalize you with just a few excerpts, to give you at least a notion of how far I have taken this labour-intensive project.   

*******************************************************     

Excerpta from the Complete Linear A lexicon of 969 words:

This lexicon comprises all of the intact words in John G. Younger’s Linear A Reverse Lexicon (which is far from comprehensive) plus every last intact word on every single tablet at his site, wherever any of the latter are not found in the former. By my count, there are 969 words, some 250 more than in Prof. John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon. Words which are apparent variants of one another are listed as one entry, e.g.

daka/daki/daku/dakuna 
dakusene(ti)
japa/japadi/japaku
kira/kiro/kirisi/kiru
maru/maruku/maruri 
merasasaa/merasasaja
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi
piku/pikui/pikuzu 
reda/redamija/redana/redasi 
saro/saru/sarutu
tami/tamia/tamisi
zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea

The following entries have been deliberately omitted:
1 Words containing any syllabograms which are either partially or wholly numeric, since we do not know what the phonetic values of these syllabograms are.
2 Strings of syllabograms > than 15 characters.

KEY:
OM = Old Minoan, the original Minoan language, denominated the Minoan substratum. Words are tagged OM only where I have been able to decipher any of them.
PGS = pre-Greek substratum, i.e. words, man of which are non-Indo-European, in existence before Mycenaean and ancient Greek, but which entered Greek and were probably present in Old Minoan, even if many of them do not appear on Linear A tablets or fragments. 
NM = New Minoan, Mycenaean derived or words of Mycenaean origin in Linear A

a
adai 
adakisika
adara/adaro/adaru OM
ade/adu OM -or- NM = ades-, ados- sort of cereal 
adunitana
adureza OM
aduza
ajesa 
aju 10
Akanu PGS = Archanes (Crete) 

... passim ...
 
dame/dami (sing. damai) PGS
daminu
danasi 80
danekuti
daqaqa
daqera OM
dare
darida OM
daropa OM
darunete
daserate
dasi OM
datapa 90
datara/datare
data2 OM
datu OM 
Dawa PGS (Haghia Triada) 
daweda OM

... passim ...

kanaka PGS
kanita
kanuti
kapa/kapaqe/kapi NM 
kaporu NM
kapusi NM?
kaqa/kaqe
kara NM
karona NM?
karopa2 (karopai) OM 260
karu NM?
karunau
kasaru
kasi
kasidizuitanai
kasikidaa
kasitero NM

... passim ...

mini/miniduwa NM
minumi
minute (sing. minuta2 - minutai)
mio/miowa 400
mipa
mireja
miru
mirutarare
misimiri
misuma
mita PGS

Paito = Phaistos
pa3a/pa3ana NM?
pa3da
pa3dipo
pa3katari
pa3kija 510

... passim ...

pimitatira2 (pimitatirai) OM
pina/pini 
pirueju
pisa
pita/pitaja 540
pitakase/pitakesi NM
pitara
piwaa/piwaja
piwi
posa NM
potokuro NM?
pu2juzu
pu2su/pu2sutu 
pu3pi
pu3tama 550
puko OM = tripod

... passim ...

roke/roki/roku
romaku
romasa
ronadi
rore/roreka
rosa PGS = rose
rosirasiro PGS = planted rose (rose + hole sunk in the ground)
rotau 680
roti OM = a type of grain or wheat (Petras)
rotwei
rua
rudedi
ruiko
rujamime
ruka/rukaa/ruki/rukike
Rukito (topo) PGS
ruko NM?
rukue 690
ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase
rupoka
ruqa/ruqaqa (common)
rusa (common/rusaka
rusi 
rutari
rutia
ruzuna

... passim ...

sadi
saja/sajama/sajamana OM 700
sajea
saka NM
sama/samaro
samidae PGS?
samuku OM
sanitii
sapo/sapi
saqa
saqeri
sara2 (sarai)/sarara PGS = sharia wheat 690 710

... passim ...

taikama OM PGS
tainumapa
ta2merakodisi
ta2re/ta2reki
ta2riki
ta2rimarusi
ta2tare
ta2tite
ta2u
tajusu 800
takaa/takari
taki/taku/takui NM
tamaduda
tanamaje
tanate/tanati NM
tanunikina
tamaru
tami/tamia/tamisi NM 
tani/taniria/tanirizu 
taniti 810 
tapa NM = Linear B

... passim ...

udami/udamia NM?
udimi
udiriki
uju NM?
uki NM?
uminase OM 
unaa
unadi (common) 920
unakanasi
unarukanasi/unarukanati
upa
uqeti
urewi
uro NM
uso/usu
uta/uta2
utaise
utaro 930
uti

waduko
wadunimi
waja NM
wanai
wanaka PGS
wapusua
wara2qa
watepidu NM
watumare 940
wazudu
wetujupitu
widina
widui
wija NM
wijasumatiti
Winadu PGS (topomastics)
winipa
winu NM
winumatari NM 950
wiraremite
wireu NM
wirudu 
wisasane
witero NM?

zadeu/zadeujuraa
zadua
zama/zame
zanwaija
zapa 960
zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea
zasata 
zirinima 
zudu
zukupi
zuma
zupaku
zusiza
zute 969 


Partial decipherment of Linear A inscription PH 1 (Arkalochori Axe):

Linear A tablet PH 1 Arkalochori Axe

My decipherment is partial. The only candidate for Mycenaean derived vocabulary is the word uro = entire, whole, i.e. total, a synonym of kuro = reaching, attaining, i.e. total.
The  word jaku obviously refers to the cargo. 


Supplement to the Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: Onomastics and Topomastics: +12 = 904 - 916

Complete Linear A Lexicon banner

It is understood that I have personally interpreted the words below as either eponyms (personal names) or toponyms (place names), but some of them may be neither, being perhaps merely words. It is also possible that one or more of the 3 terms I have listed as onomastics may be topomastics, and that any number of those I have classed as topomastics may be onomastics (or neither).

Onomastics: 

Kanajami
Tateikezare
Tidiate

Toponomastics:

Akanu = Archanes (Crete)
Dawa (Haghia Triada) 5
Dikate = Mount Dikte
Idaa = Mount Ida
Kura
Meza (= Linear B Masa)
Paito = Phaistos (= Linear B) 10
Sukirita/Sukiriteija = Sybrita
Winadu = Linear B Inato 12

TOTAL for the Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon = 916


Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 801-903 = TI - ZU

Complete Linear A Lexicon banner

tikuja
tikuneda
timaruri/timaruwite
timasa 
timi 
timunuta
tina
tinakarunau
tinata (common)/tinita
tinesekuda 810
tininaka
tinu 
tinuka
tinusekiqa
tio
tiqatediti
tiqe/tiqeri/tiqeu
tiraduja
tirakapa3
tira2 820
tire
tisa 
tisiritua
tisudapa
tita
titema
titiku
titima
tiu
tiumaja 830
tizanukaa
toipa
tome
toreqa 
tuda
tujuma
tukidija
tukuse
tuma/tumi/tumitizase
tunada/tunapa 840
tunapa3ku
tunija
tupadida
tuqe
turaa
turunuseme
turusa
tusi/tusu/tusupu2
tute
tutesi 850
udamia
udimi
udiriki
uju
uki 
uminase 
unaa
unadi (common)
unakanasi
unarukanasi/unarukanati 860
uqeti 
urewi
usu
uta/uta2
utaise
utaro
uti
waduko
wadunimi
waja 870
wanai
wapusua
wara2qa
watepidu 
watumare
wazudu
widina
widui 
wija 
wijasumatiti 880
winadu
winipa
winu
winumatari
wiraremite
wireu 
wirudu
wisasane
witero
zadeu/zadeujuraa 890
zadua
zama/zame
zanwaija
zapa
zarse/zaredu/zareki/zaresea
zasata
zirinima
zudu
zukupi
zuma 900
zupaku
zusiza
zute 903


Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 701-800 = SI - TI

Complete Linear A Lexicon banner

sina
sinada
sinae
sinakanau (common)
sinakase
sinamiu
sinatakira
sinedui
sipiki
sipu3ka 710
siriki
siwamaa
sokanipu
sudaja
suja
suniku (common) 
sure
Suria
suropa
siru/sirute 720
sirumarita2
sitetu
situ 
sokemase
sutu/sutunara
suu
suzu
taa
tadaki/tadati
tadeuka 730
taikama 
tainumapa
ta2tare
ta2tite
tajusu
takaa/takari
taki/taku/takui 
tamaduda
tamaru
temeku 740
tami/tamia/tamisi
tanamaje
tanate/tanati 
tani/taniria/tanirizu 
taniti
tanunikina
tapa 
tapiida
tapiqe
tara/tarina 750
tarejanai
tarikisu
taritama
tasa/tasaja
tasise
tata/tati
tateikezare
ta2merakodisi
ta2re/ta2reki
ta2riki 760
ta2rimarusi
ta2u
tedasi/tedatiqa
tedekima
teepikia
teizatima
tejai 
tejuda
teke/teki
tekidia 770
temada/temadai
temirerawi
tenamipi
tenata/tenataa
tenatunapa3ku
tenekuka
teneruda
teniku
tenitaki
tenu/tenumi (common)  780
tera/tere/teri 
teraseda
tereau
terikama 
teridu
tero 
teroa
terusi (extremely common)
tesi/tesiqe 
tesudesekei 790
tetu
tetita2
tewirumati
tidama
tidata
tiditeqati
tiduitii/tiisako
tija
tika 
tikiqa 800


							

Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 601-700 = RE - SI

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rezakeiteta
ria (common)
ridu
rikata
rima
rimisi 
ripaku
ripatu
riqesa
rira/riruma/rirumate 610
risa
risaipa3dai
risumasuri
ritaje
rite/ritepi
ritoe
rodaa/rodaki
roika 
roke/roki/roku
romaku 620
romasa
ronadi
rore/roreka
rosa 
rosirasiro 
rotau
rotwei
rua
rudedi
ruiko
rujamime
ruka/rukaa/ruki/rukike
ruko
rukue
ruma 
rumu/rumata/rumatase
rupoka
ruqa/ruqaqa (common)
rusa (common/rusaka
rusi 
rutari
rutia
ruzuna
sadi
saja/sajama
sajea
saka
sama/samaro
samidae
sanitii 650
sapo
sapi
saqa
saqeri
sara2/sarara
sareju
saro/saru/sarutu
sasaja
sasame
sea
sedire
sei
seikama
seimasusaa
seitau
sejarapaja
sejasinataki
sesasinunaa
sekadidi
sekatapi 670
sekidi
semake
semetu
senu
sepa
sekutu
sesapa3
setamaru 
setira
Setoija 680
sewaude
sezami
sezanitao
sezaredu
sezatimitu
sia
sidare/sidate
sidi
sidija 
sii/siisi 690
siitau
sija
sijanakarunau
sika 
siketapi
sikine
sikira/sikirita
sima 
simara
simita 700


Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 501-600 = PI - RE

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pitara
piwaa/piwaja/piwi
posa 
potokuro 
puqe 
pura2 
pusa/pusi
pusuqe
pu2juzu
pu2su/pu2sutu 510
pu3pi
pu3tama
qaka
qanuma
qapaja/qapajanai
qaqada
qaqaru 
qera2u/qara2wa 
qareto 
qaro 520
qasaraku
qatidate
qatiki
qatiju
qedeminu
qeja 
qeka
qenamiku
qenupa
qepaka 530
qepita
qepu 
qequre
qera2u
qerosa
qeta2e
qesusui
qesite
qesizue
qesupu 540
qeti/qetieradu
qetune
raa
rada/radaa/radakuku/radami
radarua
radasija
radizu
radu 
ra2rore
raja/raju 550
rakaa
raki/rakii
rakisi/raku
ranatusu
rani 
raodiki
rapa/rapu
rapu3ra
raqeda
rarasa
rarua
rasa 560
rasamii
rasasaa/rasasaja
rasi
rata/ratapi 
ratada
ratise
razua
ra2i
ra2ka
ra2madami 570
ra2miki
ra2natipiwa
ra2pu/ra2pu2 
ra2ru
ra2saa
rea
reda (common)/redamija/redana/redasi
redise
reduja
reja/rejapa (common) 580
rekau
rekotuku
reku/rekuqa/rekuqe 
rema/remi 
rematuwa
renara/renaraa
renute
repa 
repu2dudatapa
repu3du 590
reqasuo
reradu
reratarumi
rera2tusi
rerora2
resi/resu
retaa/retada
retaka
retata2
retema 600


Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 401-500 = NA - PI

Complete Linear A Lexicon banner

nasi
nasisea
nataa/nataje
natanidua
natareki (common) 
nati 
nazuku/nazuru
nea/neakoa
nedia
nedira
neka/nekisi 410
nemaduka
nemaruja
nemiduda
nemusaa
nenaarasaja
neqa
neramaa
nerapa/nerapaa
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi
nesasawi 420
nesekuda
neta 
netapa
netuqe
nidapa
nidiki/nidiwa
niduti
nijanu
niku/nikutitii
nimi 430
nipa3
niro/niru
nisi 
nisudu
niti 
nizuka 
nizuuka
nua
nude
nuki/nukisikija 440
numida/numideqe
nupa3ku (extremely common)
nupi
nuqetu
nuti/nutini
nutiuteranata
nutu
nuwi
odami/odamia 450
opi
osuqare
otanize
oteja
pa (common)/paa
padaru
padasuti
pade
padupaa
pa3katari 460
pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi
paja/pajai 
pajare
paka (very common)/paku (very common)/pakuka
pamanuita 
panuqe 
para
paria 
paroda
pasu 470
pata/patu 
pa3a/pa3ana 
pa3da 
pa3dipo
pa3kija
pa3ku
pa3pa3ku
pa3roka
pa3sase
pa3waja 480
pa3qa
panuqe
parane
parosu 
pasarija
pase
pasu
pata 
patada
patane 490
pia/pii
pija/pijawa
piku/pikui
pikuzu
pimata
pina/pini 
pirueju 
Pisa
pita/pitaja 
pitakase/pitakesi 500


Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 301-400 = KU - NA

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kureju
kuro
kuruku
kuruma
kutiti 
kutukore
kuzuni
maadf
madadu
madi  310
mai/maimi
masaja 
majutu
makaise/makaita
makarite
makidete
mana/manapi (common) 320
maniki
manirizu
manuqa 320
maru/maruku/maruri 
masa 
masi 
masuri
matapu
mateti
matiti
matizaite
matu 
masuja 330
maza/mazu
meda
medakidi
mepajai
mera 
merasasaa/merasasaja (very common)
mesasa
mesenurutu
meto
meturaa 340
meza 
mia
midai
midani
midamara
midara
mide
midiu
mie
miima 350
mijanika
mijuke
mikidua
mikisena
minaminapii
minedu
mini/miniduwa
minumi
minute 
mio/miowa 360
mipa
mireja
miru
mirutarare
misimiri
misuma
mita 
miturea
mujatewi
muko 370
mupi
muru
musaja
naa
nadare
nadi/nadiradi/nadiredi
nadiwi
nadu
nadunapu2a
naisizamikao 380
naka 
nakiki
nakininuta
nakuda
namarasasaja
nmatiti
nami
namikua/namikuda
namine
nanau 390
nanipa3
napa3du
narepirea
naridi
narinarikui
narita
naroka
naru 
nasarea
nasekimi 400


Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: the third one hundred = 201-300 = JA - KU

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jatituku + jatituku
jatoja
jawi
jedi
jeka
jemanata
jua
judu
juerupi
juka 210
juma/jumaku
juraa
jureku
juresa
jutiqa
juu
ka (extremely common)  
kada/kadasaa
kadi
kadumane 220
kae
kai/kaika 
kairo
kaji/kaju
kaki/kaku 
kakunete  
kami 
kana 
kanatiti
kanau 
kanita
kanuti
kapa/kapaqe 
kaporu
kapusi
kaqa/kaqe
kara
karona
karu 
karunau/karunau 240
kasaru
kasi
kasidizuitanai
kasikidaa 
katanite
kati
kaudeta
keire 
kekiru 
kero 
keta/kete 
ketesunata
kezadidi
kida/kidi 
kidaro
kidata
kidini
kidiora
kii/kiipa
kikiraja 260
kija
kika
kikadi
kina
kinima/ kinite
kipaa
kipisi (fairly common)
kiqa
kira/kiro/kirisi/kiru 
kireta2 270
kiretana
kisusetu
kitai 
kite 
kitiqa
koiru 
koja
kopu 
koru
kosaiti 280
kuda
kuja
kujude
kuka 
kukudara
kumaju
kumapu
kunisu
kupa/kupi
kupatikidadia 290
kupa3natu
kupa3nu
kupa3pa3
kupa3rija
kupaja
kupari
kupazu
kura/kuramu
kurasaqa
kureda 300 


Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: the second one hundred = 101-200 = DI - JA

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This is the most comprehensive Linear A Lexicon ever published on the Internet. 

This lexicon comprises all of the intact words in John G. Younger’s Linear A Reverse Lexicon (which is far from comprehensive) plus every last intact word on every single tablet or fragment at his site, wherever any of the latter are not found in the former. By my count, there are 903 words, though I may have made the occasional error in addition, since I had to subtract some repetitive words and add others from the tablets, which are not in the Linear A Reverse Lexicon. Although Prof. John G. Younger has tallied some 903 Linear A words on his site, Linear A Texts in phonetic transcription, his actual lexicon is far from complete. Consequently, it has been necessary for me to draw all of the intact Linear words from every last Linear A tablet and fragment on Prof. Younger’s site. The difficulty here is that his lexicon includes even those Linear A words containing unknown syllabograms, many of which are assigned numeric values only, e.g. *309 *318 *319 *346-348 etc. And there are a number of them. The problem with all of these syllabograms is that no one knows what their phonetic values are. So it goes without saying that every last Minoan Linear A word which contains even one of these unknown syllabograms should, properly speaking, be disqualified. Moreover, there is  redundancy in some of the vocabulary, since quite a few Linear A words on his site are simply variants of one another. To cite just a few examples, we have: daka/daki/daku/dakuna; maru/maruku/maruri; nesa, nesaki, nesakimi; and tami, tamia, tamisi. Consequently, I have also eliminated all of the variants on any given term. This leaves us with a remaindered total of 903, exclusive of onomastics (personal names) and topomastics (place names).

Words which are apparent variants of one another are listed as one entry, e.g.

daka/daki/daku/dakuna 
dakusenete(ti)
japa/japadi/kapaku
kira/kiro/kirisi/kiru
maru/maruku/maruri 
merasasaa/merasasaja
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi
piku/pikui/pikuzu 
reda/redamija/redana/redasi 
saro/saru/sarutu
tami/tamia/tamisi
zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea

The following entries have been deliberately omitted:
1. Words containing any syllabograms which are either partially or wholly numeric, since we do not know what the phonetic values of these syllabograms are.
2. Strings of syllabograms > than 15 characters.

NOTE: I have already deciphered well over 200 Linear A words, but none of these are tagged in this comprehensive Linear A Lexicon. I shall be posting my decipherments at a later date.

dipa3a
diqise
dirasa
diredina
dirina
diru
disa
disipita
ditajaru
du/dua 110
duja
dumaina
dumedi
dunawi
dupa3na
dupu3re
dura2
durare 
duratiqe
durezase 120
dusi/dusini
dusima
dusu
duti
duwi
duzu
edamisa
eka
epa3
ero 130
esija
ezusiqe
ia
Ida/Idaa
idada
idapa3
idamate/idamete 
idarea 
idunesi
iduti 140
ijadi
ijapame
ika
ikesedesute
ikurina
ikuta
ima 
imeti
inajapaqa
inaimadu 150
ipinama
ira2  
iruja
isari
ise
itaja
itaki 
itijukui
itinisa
ititikuna 160
izurinita
jaa
jadi/jadikitu
jadireja
jadisi
jadu
jadurati
jai 
jaiterikisu
jaitose 170
jainwaza
jaja
jakisikinu
jako/jaku/jakute
jamaa
jami/jamidare
januti 
japa/japadi/japaku
japametu 
japarajase 180
japanidami
jara2qe
jare/jaremi
jarepu2
jarete
jari/jarina/jarinu
jaripa3ku
jarisapa
jaru/jarui
jasaraanane 190
jasaja
jasapai
jasamu
jasasarame
jasea 
jasepa
jasie
jasumatu 
jata/jatai/jatapi
jate/jateo 200


Minoan Linear provides significant evidence of the presence of proto-Greek or even (proto) – Mycenaean in its vocabulary:

Minoan Linear provides significant evidence of the presence of proto-Greek or even (proto) – Mycenaean in its vocabulary, as attested by this Table (Table 2a & Table 2B), which I have had to divide into two parts because it is so long. So we have

Table 2a Minoan words of apparent proto-Greek origin… or are they in the pre-Greek substratum? A-M:

 

Minoan Linear A apparent proto-Greek Table 2 a 620

and Table 2b: N-W:

Table 2b minoan apparent proto-greek 620

It is readily apparent from this Table in two parts that all of the words listed in it may be interpreted as proto-Greek or possibly even (proto-) Mycenaean. But the operative word is may, not certainly. This is because (a) Minoan Linear A, like Mycenaean Linear B, makes no distinction between Greek short and long vowels and (b) like Mycenaean Linear B, the Linear A syllabary is deficient in representing a number of Greek consonants, which otherwise might have been the initial consonants of the successive syllabic series, e.g. da de di do du, ka ke ki ko ku, ta te ti to tu etc. The following Greek consonants, first illustrated in this table of the ancient Greek alphabet including the archaic digamma, which was in widespread use in Mycenaean Linear B, are tagged with an asterisk * :

 

ancient Greek alphabet with digamma

and here Latinized for accessibility to our visitors who cannot read Greek, i.e. b, g, eita (long i) , ksi, fi (pi), chi (as in Scottish loch), psi and omega. Because of these lacuna and the notable ambiguities which arise from it, it is not possible to verify that the so-called proto-Greek or (proto-) Mycenaean words listed in Tables 2a & 2b are in fact that. However, chances are good that they are proto-Greek. Additionally, it is not possible to verify whether or not a few, some or even all of the words in Tables 2a and 2b, which appear to be proto-Greek actually fall within the pre-Greek substratum. If the latter scenario is true, then it is more likely than not that a few, some or even all of these words are in fact Minoan. There is no way to verify this for certain. Nevertheless, numerous international researchers into Minoan Linear A, most notably, Urii Mosenkis, one of the world’s most highly qualified linguists specializing in diachronic historical linguistics, including, but not limited to Minoan Linear A, who stands in the top 0.1 % of 40 million users on academia.edu:

 

Urii Mosenkis academia.edu

have provided significant convincing circumstantial evidence that there are even hundreds of proto-Greek words in Minoan Linear A, which begs the question, is Minoan Linear A proto-Greek? But the answer to the question is not nearly so obvious as one might think, as I shall be demonstrating in my second article, Current prospects for the decipherment of Minoan Linear A”, which I will be submitting to the prestigious international annual journal, Archaeology and Science (Belgrade) by no later than April 17 2017, the deadline for submissions.

There is no positive, indisputable proof that there are any number of proto-Greek or proto-Greek words in Minoan Linear A, any more than there is any positive proof whatsoever that, as Gretchen Leonhardt would have us believe, that there are any number of proto-Altaic or proto-Japanese words, if any at all, in the Minoan language. As for her hypothesis, for which there not even any substantive circumstantial evidence whatsoever, it is my firm belief and contention that she is, to use the common expression, wasting her time and energy barking up the wrong tree.


Arcado-Cypriot Linear C, the Elegant Culmination of Syllabaries from Minoan Linear A through to Mycenaean Linear B

The title of my submission to Vol. 13 (2017) Archaeology and Science (Belgrade) ISSN 1452-7448 is to be:

Arcado-Cypriot Linear C, the Elegant Culmination of Syllabaries from Minon Linear through to Mycenaean Linear B.

cover-as-2015

This article will feature an overview of each of the syllabaries in turn and the languages and dialects they represent: Minoan for Linear A, the earliest East Greek dialect Mycenaean for Linear B, and the slightly later dialect Arcado-Cypriot for Linear C. It will be quite some time before I will even be able to make my submission, as Vol. 12 (2016) is still in the pipeline, and authors articles have not been returned to them in their master format for proof-reading. Nor will they be returned to us before the end of 2017. But I like to hedge my bets, and anyway, the aforementioned topic for Vol. 13 (2017) is right down my alley, in view of the fact that I am expert in all three syllabaries (Linear A, B & C) and their respective languages.

the-arcado-cypriot-linear-c-syllabary-annotated

NOTE it is absolutely de rigueur to read the table of the Arcado-Cypriot Linear C syllabary above, if you are to get any real grasp of its enormous significance, not only for the development of literary ancient Greek, which it pioneered, but retrospectively for a proper understanding of Mycenaean Linear B phonetics.

The article will explore in great depth the legacy of Minoan Linear A for Mycenaean Linear B and that of Mycenaean Linear B for Arcado-Cypriot Linear C in turn. Finally, we shall address the even more striking historical legacy of Arcado-Cypriot Linear C itself, as this last syllabary in the series of 3 syllabaries was to have a real impact on the historical Greek era (ca. 1100 BCE – 400 BCE).

What is most striking about the evolution of these three syllabaries is that, as we pass from one to the next, the syllabaries become more streamlined and more simplified. The Minoan Linear A syllabary is the most complex, with a very large number of syllabograms, many of which are undeciphered. While there are ideograms in Minoan Linear A, there are fewer of them in Linear A than in Mycenaean Linear B, which made extensive use of them for the purposes of accurate, minimalized inventory taking. On the other hand, by the time we get to Arcado-Cypriot Linear C, the picture changes drastically. Almost all of the syllabograms in Linear C look completely unlike their Minoan Linear A and Mycenaean Linear B forbears. They look different. But appearances can be and are, in the case of Arcado-Cypriot Linear C, very deceiving. While the syllabograms in Arcado-Cypriot Linear C look different from those in Mycenaean Linear B (leaving Minoan Linear A aside, because it is too archaic and too complex), almost all of them bear the same phonetic values as their Linear B counterparts. But what is most remarkable about Arcado-Cypriot Linear C is that it utterly abandoned ideograms, once and for all. There are several cogent reasons for this amazing development, which I shall address when I finally come around to writing this article, probably sometime in 2018.

I have already discussed this topic in recent posts on the Linear A, Linear B & Linear C keyboard templates, and so I would ask you to refer back to them for clarification on any issues which may elude you, and which I do not address in this post, for the simple reason that I have not even yet begun my article for Archaeology and Science. But, of one thing you can be certain, it is bound to be a ground-breaker, like all of my previous articles in this prestigious international archaeological journal.


The Arcado-Cypriot Linear C keyboard template & the significantly revised timeline for (proto-) historic ancient Greek society:

arcado-cyrpriot-linear-c-keyboard-template-620

This image of the Arcado-Cypriot Linear C keyboard template has been downsized to 620 pixels to fit the restrictive exigencies of Word Press image size. You may request the full-sized 1200 pixel Linear C keyboard template by contacting me at:

vallance22@zoho.com

The Arcado-Cypriot Linear C keyboard template reveals several fascinating characteristics of this extremely important and highly tenacious syllabary. These are:

1. The Arcadians and Cypriots thoroughly redesigned Linear C, almost completely abandoning the Minoan Linear A and Mycenaean Linear B syllabograms, but only in superficial appearance.
2. The only Linear C syllabograms which bear resemblance with their Mycenaean Linear B forbears are: NA SE PA & PO.
3. But almost all of the rest of the syllabograms in Linear C bear the same phonetic values as their Linear B forbears. 
4. The DA series of syllabograms in Minoan Linear A and Mycenaean Linear B has completely disappeared from Arcado-Cypriot Linear C.
5. The RA RE RI RO (RU) series of syllabograms in Minoan Linear A and Mycenaean Linear B has split into 2 discreet, separate series: LA LE LI LO LU & RA RE RI RO RU. But what was the reason for this deliberate split? Here is my hypothesis: it would appear that the Minoans and Mycenaeans were unable to distinguish between the liquids L and R, pronouncing L something along the lines the Japanese did.
6. The syllabograms XA and XE, and the syllabogram GA are non-existent in Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear B.
7. Arcado-Cypriot Linear C abandoned ideograms completely. This makes for a much more -
8. streamlined syllabary.
9. The Arcado-Cypriot Linear C syllabary was diachronically extremely tenacious, lasting 7 centuries (ca. 1100 BCE – 400 BCE) co-existing in parallel with the Arcado-Cypriot alphabet.
10. philologists and linguists expert in ancient Greek are accustomed to drawing the timeline for the first appearance of written Greek from 800 BCE onward (ca. the time of Homers Ilad to Attic Greek, ca. 400 BCE).

arcado-cypriot-distribution

revised-timeline-wirtten-greek-1200-bce-300-bce

But I am in fundamental disagreement with this hypothesis. Since Arcado-Cypriot Linear C came to the fore ca. 1100 BCE, a mere 100 years or approximately one century after the fall of Mycenae and the demise of the Linear B syllabary, it is surely open to doubt whether or not the so-called Greek Dark Ages actually lasted at least 400 years (ca. 1200 – 800 BCE). So we have to wonder whether or not that small gap of a mere century or so between the demise of  the Linear B syllabary (ca. 1200 BCE) and the sudden appearance of Arcado-Cypriot Linear C (ca. 1100 BCE) makes much of a difference at all in the actual timeline for written ancient Greek, which to my mind runs from 1600 BCE, with the advent of Mycenaean Linear B, all the way through to 400 BCE, i.e. for 12 centuries – 1 century (because of the 1 century gap between Linear B and Linear C), i.e. for 11 centuries! This makes for a huge difference between the previously held timeline of a mere 4 centuries from 800 – 400 BCE. It sets back the timeline for Greek civilization 500 years, receding back from 1100 BCE to 1600 BCE.  I also strongly object to the commonly held notion that Mycenaean and Mycenaean Minoan Greece was a prehistoric civilization. Since writing did exist in the form of the Linear B syllabary, albeit only in scribal format, I believe we can safely conclude that the Mycenaean civilization was proto-historic. And there is more: if we also take Minoan Linear A into account (which we definitely should), then the proto-historic period, if we are to include the pre-Greek substrate of Minoan society, recedes several centuries more into the distant past, to at least 2,900 BCE! Just because we cannot read the Minoan language does not mean it not also proto-historic phenomenon. 

That Arcado-Cypriot Linear C lasted for such a very long time attests to the fact that syllabaries such as Mycenaean Linear B & Arcado-Cypriot Linear C itself were much more suitable to inscribing or writing ancient Greek than most philologists or diachronic historical linguists would care to admit. I shall have plenty to say about this in the article I shall soon be posting on my academia.edu account:

Templates for the layouts of the Minoan Linear A, Mycenaean Linear B & Arcado-Cypriot Linear C fonts.

You can download the Linear C font here:

download-arcado-cypriot-linear-c-font


  



Archaeology and Science annual: the Decipherment of Supersyllabograms in Linear B, the last & most formidable frontier in the decipherment of Mycenaean Linear B:

cover-as-2015

For the past 65 years since Michael Ventris first deciphered Linear B, one phenomenon has eluded historical linguists and philologists. This is the supersyllabogram, which is always a single syllabogram, being the first syllabogram, i.e. the first syllable of a particular Mycenaean word in any one or more of the major economic sectors of the Mycenaean economy: agriculture, military, textiles and the vessels and pottery sector, along with a few religious supersyllabograms. Supersyllabograms are always independent; they always stand alone on extant Linear. My discovery, isolation and classification of supersyllabograms represents the final frontier in the decipherment of Mycenaean Linear B. Some 800 tablets from Knossos alone contain primarily supersyllabograms, with a subset of these incised with supersyllabograms and nothing else. It is difficult to decipher the former, and impossible to decipher the latter without fully accounting for the presence of supersyllabograms. The decipherment of supersyllabograms accounts for the last and most difficult remaining 10 % of Mycenaean Linear B to be deciphered.

inset-as-2015

editors-as-2015

intro-article-as-2015

You may also download The Decipherment of Supersyllabograms in Linear B here:

archaeology-and-science-download

This article is 35 pages long (pp. 73-108) in a 29 cm. x 22 cm. format, which is far oversized compared with the standard north American format for research journals (ca. 20 cm. vertical), meaning that if it had been published in the standard north American format, it would have run to some 50 pp., which is the size of a small book.

The Editorial Board consists of 21 peer reviewers, all of them matriculated professors and researchers at the Ph.D. level or higher, from Ancona, Belgrade, Belgium, Bologna, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A., Moscow, Münich, Philadelphia, U.S.A., Rome, Warsaw & Trieste. Every author must pass muster with the majority of these peer reviewers if his or her article is to be published in Archaeology and Science. That is one tall hurdle to overcome.

Note also that I am ranked in the top 0.5 % of all researchers and publishers on academia.edu

richard-vallance-on-academia-edu

 


Academia.edu DRAFT PAPER = Preview and brief summary of the article, “The Mycenaean Linear B ‘Rosetta Stone’ to Minoan Linear A Tablet HT 31 (Haghia Triada) Vessels and Pottery”, to be published in Archaeology and Science (Belgrade) ISSN 1452-7448. Vol. 12, 2018. (approximately 40 pages long), with some excerpts from the article to whet your appetite.

preview-linear-b-pylos-ta-641-1952-ventris-rosetta-stone-for-linear-a-tablet-ht-31-haghia-triada

This article represents the first major breakthrough in 117 years in the partial, though far from complete, decipherment of Minoan Linear A.

Even this preview, with excerpts running to 9 pages from the actual article, will give you a quite clear idea of exactly how I managed to finesse the decipherment of 21 % (107/510 words) of Minoan Linear A lexicon, more or less accurately. Anyone the least bit interested in the ongoing struggle to decipher Minoan Linear A, even partially, is definitely going to want to read this preview and brief summary, with a few excerpts from the article, which is to appear sometime early in 2018. It quite literally represents by far the most significant development in any attempt to decipher even a relatively small subset of the Minoan Linear A lexicon.



For the first time in history, the complete conjugations of 5 major derived (D) active indicative tenses of thematic verbs in Linear B progressive grammar:

The tenses of active thematic verbs are:
the present indicative active
the future indicative active
the imperfect indicative active
the aorist indicative active
the perfect indicative active

Here is are the 2 tables (A & B) of the complete derived (D) conjugations of these 5 tenses of the active thematic verb kaue = the archaic ancient Greek kauein (Latinized), to set on fire:
 
aa-present-future-imperfect

ab-aorist-pluperfect

The ability of a linguist specializing in Mycenaean Linear B, i.e. myself, to cognitively restore no fewer than 5 active tenses of thematic verbs by means of progressive Mycenaean Greek derived (D) grammar boils down to one impressive feat. However, I have omitted the pluperfect indicative active, since it was rarely used in any and all of the numerous dialects of ancient Greek, right on down from Mycenaean to Arcado-Cypriot to Aeolic, Ionic and Attic Greek, and indeed right on through the Hellenistic and New Testament eras. So since the pluperfect tense is as rare as it is, why bother reconstructing it? At least, this is my rationale. Other researchers and linguists specializing in Mycenaean Linear B may disagree. That is their perfect right.  

Is Mycenaean Greek in Linear B a proto-Greek dialect? Absolutely not!

There are still a few researchers and historical linguists specializing in Mycenaean Linear B who would have us believe that Mycenaean Greek is a proto-Greek dialect. Nothing could be further from the truth. The fact that so many fully developed grammatical forms are attested (A) on Linear B tablets confirms once and for all that Mycenaean Greek is the earliest intact East Greek dialect. Among the numerous grammatical forms attested (A) in Mycenaean Greek, we count: [1] verbs, including infinitives active and some passive for both thematic and athematic MI verbs; a sufficient number of verbs either in the active present or aorist tenses; a considerable number of participles, especially perfect passive; and even the optative case in the present tense, [2] nouns & adjectives, for which we find enough attested (A) examples of these declined in the nominative singular and plural, the genitive singular and plural and the dative/instrumental/ablative singular & plural. The accusative singular and plural appear to be largely absent from the Linear B tablets, but appearances can be deceiving, as I shall soon convincingly demonstrate. Also found on the extant Linear B tablets are the comparative and superlative of adjectives, and [3] almost all of the prepositions to be found in later ancient Greek dialects. Taken altogether, these extant attributed (A) grammatical elements form a foundation firm enough to recreate templates for all of the aforementioned elements in a comprehensive derived (D) progressive Mycenaean Linear B grammar. If you are still not convinced, I simply refer you to the previous post, where examples of many of  these grammatical elements are accounted for.  Moreover, once I have completely recompiled ancient Mycenaean Greek grammar, you should be convinced beyond a shadow of a doubt that Mycenaean Greek was the very first true ancient Greek dialect.

What is progressive derived (D) Mycenaean Linear B grammar? 

By progressive I mean nothing less than as full a restoration as possible of the corpus of ancient Mycenaean Greek grammar by means of the procedure of regressive extrapolation of the (exact) equivalents of any and all grammatical elements I shall have reconstructed from the two major sources of slightly later archaic Greek, namely: (a) the Arcado-Cypriot dialect, in which documents were composed in the Linear C syllabary, a direct offshoot of Mycenaean Linear B (Even though the two syllabaries look scarcely alike, the symbolic values of their syllabograms are in almost all instances practically identical), and from so-called Epic Greek, which was comprised of diverse elements haphazardly drawn from various archaic Greek dialects, in other words yielding nothing less than a mess, but a viable one nonetheless.

At this juncture, I must emphatically stress that, contrary to common opinion among ancient Greek literary scholars not familiar with either Mycenaean Linear B or Arcado-Cypriot Linear C, the gap between the scribal Linear B tablets and the next appearance of written ancient Greek is not around 400 years (1200-800 BCE), as they would have it, but only one century. Why so? Hard on the heels of the collapse of the Mycenaean Empire and of its official script, Linear B, ca. 1200 BCE, Arcado-Cypriot Linear C first appeared in writing a mere 100 years after, give or take. The revised timeline for the disappearance and reappearance of written Greek is illustrated here:

revised-timeline-for-the-reappearance-of-written-ancient-greek    
If this is not convincing enough, Mycenaean Greek’s intimate cousin, Arcado-Cypriot, of which the syllabary is Linear C, is even more closely related to Mycenaean Greek than Ionic is to Attic Greek. In fact, you could say that they are kissing cousins. Now it stands to reason that, if Arcado-Cypriot in Linear C is a fully developed East Greek dialect, as it most certainly is (subsisting at least 700 years, from 1100 – 400 BCE), then it follows as day does night that Mycenaean Linear B must also be a fully functional East Greek dialect (in fact, the first). The two factors addressed above should lay to rest once and for all that Mycenaean Greek is merely proto-Greek. That is sheer nonsense.


Ancient Greek alphabet for the benefit of those of you who already know Linear B:

Here is  the ancient Greek  alphabet for the benefit of those of you who already know Linear B.

ancient-greek-alphabet

Although the table appears so tiny on the screen, if you RIGHT CLICK on it, and then input SAVE AS + a file name, it will save it on your computer full size, which is much larger than the tiny table you see here.

Please NOTE that same syllabograms in Linear B do not always have counterparts in ancient Greek. For instance, the syllabograms RA, RE, RI, RO & RU are sometimes spelled the same in ancient Greek, but since Linear B has no L series of syllabograms, the R series just as often corresponds to the amcien Greek spellings LA, LE, LI, LO & LU. For instance, the Linear B word rimene = limenei = to the harbour (dative singular). 


I have just finished the first draft of the article, “Pylos Tablet Py TA 641-1952 (Ventris), the ‘Rosetta Stone’ for Linear A tablet HT 31, vessels and pottery, which is to appear in Vol. 12 (2016) of the prestigious international annual, Archaeology and Science (Belgrade)  ISSN 1452-7448,

archaeology-and-science-cover-vol-10

and I fully  expect that I shall completed the draft Master by no later than Oct. 15 2016, by which time I shall submit it to at least 5 proof-readers for final corrections, so that I can hopefully submit it to the journal by no later than Nov. 1 2016.   This article is to prove to be a ground-breaker in the decipherment of at least 21.5 % = 116 terms of the extant vocabulary = 510 terms by my count, of  Minoan Linear A, although I cannot possibly claim to have deciphered the language itself. Nor would I, since such a claim is unrealistic at best, and preposterous at worst. Nevertheless, this article should prove to be the most significant breakthrough in any partially successful decipherment in Minoan Linear A since the first discovery of a meagre store of Linear A tablets by Sir Arthur Evans at Knossos 116 years ago.

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