Tag Archive: decipherment of Minoan Linear A



Linear A fragment PH 8 (Phaistos), largely indecipherable for scanty text:

Linear A fragment Phaistos PH 8

My interpretation of Linear A fragment PH 8 (Phaistos), largely indecipherable for scanty text, is very much at odds with that of Prof. John G. Younger. This is not the first time either.


Linear A fragment from Phaistos with a fish remarkably resembling the ancient Christian-like iconography of the fish:

Phaistos Linear A tablet with fish Christian-like iconography

This Linear A fragment from Phaistos, which was found in the same cache as PH 7, is remarkable insofar as we find on it the sole occurrence of the ideogram for fishon any Linear A tablet anywhere, regardless of provenance.

This symbol is remarkable for two reasons. First, it is clearly a reflection of the inscription on Phaistos fragment PH 7, which reads as follows, “(illumined by) the firebrand of the goddess of healing, the bread of healing with water from a cup”. If this is not reminiscent of the Christian communion, I do not know what is. But we can go even further. The resemblance between the fish ideogram on this Linear A fragment from Phaistos to the fragment bearing an anchor, fish and Greek chi ro symbols from the Catacombs of Saint Sebastian

chi-rho fish anchor fragment from catacombs of saint sebastian

is so striking that one is left wondering how this can possibly be. However, there may be less of a mystery here than we might otherwise imagine. It is a well known historical phenomenon in ancient religions that a later religion frequently borrows its iconography from a former.

Additional critical  highly relevant commentary by Daniel Rocha:

It is true that later religions borrow from older religions, but it seems that these symbols kind of run in parallel to Judaism, as far as I know. In any case, the symbols you are mentioning are linked to the worship of Atargatis. This deity used to be the wife of God in the very primitive versions of Judaism. If what you are pointing is true, it seems that the worship of Mary is justified, since she would be the wife of God. But, as far as I know, this cult among Jews did not exist in the 1st century CE.

But look here: “It has also been proposed that the element -gatis may relate to the Greek gados “fish”.[14] (For example, the Greek name for “sea monster” or “whale” is the cognate term ketos. So Atar-Gatis may simply mean “the fish-goddess Atar”.”

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ichthys

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atargatis

Atargatis

But it could be like gados mana, fish food or something along these lines: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manna#Origin

Plus an additional comment by Richard Vallance Janke:

The Linear A word keta/kete, which very much appears to be the same word, first in the accusative of aspect (keta) and secondly in the instrumental sing. (kete, meaning “with fish”), of which the masculilne singular in Linear A would have been keto, and which is the equivalent of ancient Greek gados. If this is the case, then the fish ideogram on this fragment from Phaistos echoes even more closely the text of Phaistos PH 7, which as we have already seen is a religious ceremony involving a libation of water along with the bread of healing. If all of this rings true, then the relationship between these two fragments is so striking it simply cannot be ignored. Moreover, the Hebrew, manna (grains, bread), interpreted in Christianity as the bread of Heaven, also appears in Linear A as mana, another astonishing co-incidence.

Richard

Linear A vase rim inscription PE Zb 3 (Petras), terebinth trees:

Linear A vase rim Petras PE Zb 3 on tereebinth trees

The Linear A vase rim inscription PE Zb 3 (Petras) deals with terebinth trees, kitanasijase (instrumental plural), either surrounded by a (stone) enclosure or growing in a field. The inscription is entirely in Mycenaean-derived New Minoan. Since the Linear A word for terebinth tree, kitano (nominative masc. sing.) is all but identical to the Linear B word kitano, we can be quite certain that this tablet is inscribed in New Minoan.

On a passing note, I would like to point out that I have already deciphered over 60 Linear A tablets more or less accurately. That is far more than anyone has ever even attempted to decipher in the past.


Linear A fragment PH 7 (Phaistos) which is definitely a religious incantation:

PH 7 linear-a-phaistos-a religious incantation

Linear A fragment PH 7 (Phaistos), entirely inscribed in Mycenaean-derived New Minoan, is definitely a religious incantation. It is fascinating to note that the incantation is highly reminiscent of the Christian mass or communion, call it what you will. The priestess pours water, udiriki (instr. sing.), from a cup, dipaja (gen. sing.) and offers jatimane or the blessed bread of healing to her suppliants, while the whole ceremony, apparently conducted in a small shrine, is illumined by a firebrand. What a lovely, intimate picture of a scared religious ceremony this draws!


Linear A tablet dealing with wheat and spices:

Linear A tablet dealing with wheat and spices

Note that on this tablet, the word toesato/totaesato/toekito/totaekito (whichever one of these 4 alternatives it is and whatever it means) is conjectural, since I find it difficult to determine how many syllabograms there are in it.


Minoan Linear A decorated ceramic, kitina, Cf. Linear B kot0na = plot of land?

minoan decorated ceramic

This Minoan Linear A decorated ceramic is inscribed with the single word, kitina, which looks very much like the Mycenaean Linear B word kotona or kotoina, which means a plot of land. If this is the case, it would appear that the ceramic is a personal token of the owner of a plot of land. It could also be a personal name, but this is less likely. What appears to ber the genitive singular, kitanasija, also appears in Linear A.


After 117 years, the Linear A vocabulary for 3 major grains (bran, wheat, barley) and for flax is conclusively deciphered:

Although decipherment of Linear A vocabulary for the primary Minoan grains has seemed beyond reach for the past 117 years, I believe that I may have actually cracked the vocabulary for at least 3 major Minoan grain crops, kireta2 (kiretai)/kiretana (attributive) = barley, dideru = einkorn wheat, kunisu = emmer wheat and for sara2 (sarai) = flax, while concurrently tackling 3 more grain crops, rumata(se), pa3ni (paini)/pa3nina (painina) (attributive), which I may or may not have managed to accurately identify. More on this below.

How did I manage to accomplish this feat? My first breakthrough came with the code-breaker, Linear A tablet HT 114 (Haghia Triada), on which appears the word kireta2 (kiretai). It just so happens that this is a match with the ancient Greek word, kritha(i) for barley, here Latinized:

Minoan Linear A tablet HT 114 Haghia Triada

Armed with this invaluable information, I then devised a procedure to extract the names of the other 2 major grains, dideru (Linear B equivalent, didero), and kunisu and for sara2 (sarai) from all of the Haghia Triada tablets. I selected the tablets from Haghia Triada because they mention grains far more often than any other extant Linear A tablets do, regardless of provenance, with the sole exception of Zakros ZA 20, which is a very close match with the many Linear A tablets from Haghia Triada dealing with grains.

The procedure I have adopted is tagged cross-comparative extrapolation (CCE). I scanned every last word related to grain on every last Linear A tablet from Haghia Triada, HT 1 – HT 154K on Prof. John G. Youngers Linear A texts in phonetic transcription HT (Haghia Triada) for the recurrence and numerical frequency of each of these words. It strikes me as very odd that no one in the past 117 years since the first discovery of Linear A tablets at Knossos has ever thought of this or a similar cross-comparative procedure. While it is practically useless to try and extrapolate the meaning of each and every grain merely by examining them in context on any single Linear A tablet, regardless of provenance, because even in single tablet context, and even in the presence of other words apparently describing other type(s) of grain, we get absolutely nowhere, the outcome from cross-correlating every last one of these words on every last tablet from Haghia Triada paints an entirely different picture, a picture which is both comprehensive and all-embracing. Clear and unambiguous patterns emerge for each and every word, including the total incidence of all statistics for them all. The result is astonishing. The table below makes this transparently clear:

Minoan ancient grains

We see right off the top that all of the Haghia put together mention akaru, which means field, the equivalent of Linear B akoro, no fewer than 20 times! Additionally, the generic word for wheat, situ, corresponding to Linear B sito, surfaces 5 times. But this is just the tip of the proverbial iceberg. Cross-comparative extrapolation of the next 4 grains has proven to be much more fruitful. The first of these is of course kireta2 (kiretai) kiretana (attributive) for “barley”, which appears 149 times (!) on all of the Linear A tablets from Haghia Triada. I was definitely on to something big.

But the preliminary step I needed to take, before I actually attempted to identify the next 2 most common grains cultivated in the pre-Mycenaean and Mycenaean Minoan era, was to conduct a Google search on the 2 most common grains after barley grown in Minoan Crete. These are einkorn and emmer respectively. Returning to my cross-comparative extrapolative scan, I discovered the words dideru and kunisu recurring 40 times each. It just so happens that one previous researcher (whose name unfortunately escapes me for the time being, but whom I shall fully acknowledge when I publish my summary data on academia.edu) has accurately identified both of these types of wheat. As can be seen from the table above, these are dideru for “einkorn” and kunisu for “emmer” wheat respectively.

Moving on, fully realizing that sara2 (sarai) runs rampant on the Haghia Triada Linear A tablets, I discovered that this word recurs no less than 1321 times. Astonishing! But what does it mean? The answer was not long coming. The next most common crop the Minoans cultivated was flax, for the production of linen. Flax is not a grain, but is derived from flax flowers and seeds. This fully explains why sara2 (sarai) recurs with such astonishing frequency. Unlike the aforementioned grains, which would have been grown on a relatively restricted number of plots, in this case not exceeding 4o each, the number of flax flowers required to produce a sufficient flax harvest would have had to be very high… hence 1321. These stunning frescoes illustrate a male Minoan flax flower and a female flax seed gatherer:

Minoan flax gatherers

Even from these 2 frescoes, we can easily see that the flax gatherers were kept busy picking what was required, a large flax crop, in this case running to 1321 flax seeds and flowers. No surprise here.

As a result of my exhaustive cross-comparative extrapolation of the first four Minoan crops, I have been able to define 3 of them for certain as grains, kireta2 (kiretai), dideru and kunisu, and one of them, sara2 (sarai) as flax. It is practically certain that all 4 definitions are correct. Hence, I have managed to isolate for the first time in 117 years the actual names of 4 major Minoan crops, barley, einkorn wheat, emmer wheat and flax.

However, when it comes to the next 5 crops, we run up against inescapable semiotic problems. What does each of these signifiers signify? There is no easy answer. On the other hand, I would have been remiss were I not to make a stab at extrapolating the names of these crops as well. It just so happens that the next most common grains after barley, einkorn and emmer cultivated by the Minoans were millet and spelt. And the next two words I extrapolated were rumata(se) and pa3ni (paini)/pa3nina/painina (attributive). But if one of them appears to be millet, the other is spelt, or vice versa. That is the conundrum. But the problem is compounded by the mystifying cumulative total statistics for each of these words, 1039 for rumata(se) and 1021 for pa3ni (paini)/pa3nina/painina (attributive). Why on earth are there so many recurrences of these 2 crops, when there are only 40 instances of dideru and kunisu? It does not seem to make any sense at all. Yet there is a possible explanation. While dideru and kunisu reference einkorn and emmer crops as crops per se, it would appear that rumata(se) and pa3ni (paini)/pa3nina/painina (attributive) refer to the seeds derived from the crops. It is the only way out of this impasse. However, it is not necessarily a satisfying answer, and so I have to reserve judgement on these definitions, which are interchangeable at any rate.

Next we have the ligatured logograms dare and kasaru, either of which might refer to the next most common crops, durum and lentils. But there is no way for us to corroborate this conclusion with any certainty. The verdict is out. Finally, the last word, kuzuni, might refer to 2 other, less common Minoan crops, either sesame or vetch for fodder. But once again, which one is which? Your guess is as good as mine.

Conclusions:

Nevertheless, one thing is certain. Every last one of these words identifies a Minoan crop. While most of them are grains, three of them are certainly not. One of them is clearly flax (sara2/sarai) The other two may or may not be lentils or sesame. But they probably are one or the other, if they are not on the other hand durum or vetch. In short, there several permutations and combinations for the last 5. Yet the circumstantial evidence for the first 4 appears quite solid enough to justify the definitions we have assigned, barley, einkorn, emmer and flax. So at least this constitutes a major breakthrough in the identification of these 4 for the first time in 117 years.

I shall eventually be publishing a much more comprehensive draft paper on this very subject on my academia.edu account, either this summer or autumn. I shall keep you posted.


Google image search “Minoan Linear A grains” reveals that practically every last image is from Linear A, Linear B, Knossos & Mycenae:

Click on the image search banner to see the results for yourself:

google search on grains and their decipherment in Linear A

This confirms that the almost all current research (2015-2017) is almost exclusively founded in my studies and decipherments of grains (wheat, barley, flax, spelt etc.) on Linear A tablets.


Credible decipherment of several grains mentioned on of Linear A tablet HT 10 (Haghia Triada):

Linear A tablet HT 10 Haghia Triada dealing with several grain crops

After several abortive attempts at realizing a relatively convincing decipherment of Linear A tablet HT 10 (Haghia Triada), I believe I have finally managed to come through. This has to be one of the most challenging Linear A tablets I have ever been confronted with. Any credible decipherment eluded me for months on end, until it finally struck me that all I needed to do was to identify the grain crops most commonly cultivated in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Mediterranean. And this is precisely what I have just done.  

Neolithic and Bronze age grains cultivated in the Mediterranean during the Neolithic and Bronze Age eras (the most common italicized):

barley (sara2/sarai?) *
einkorn (dideru) *
emmer (kunisu) *
flax (sara2/sarai?) *
freekeh (sara2/sarai?) *
and
bran (less common)
bulgur (less common)
groats (less common)
lentils (less common)
millet (dare -or- kasaru)
spelt (dare -or- kasaru)
vetch for fodder (less common)

Now it strikes me that if we find any of these grains recurring on several Linear A tablets, and we do, these grains must be the most common cultivated then. As it so happens, the 3 grain crops most frequently referenced in Linear A tablets are dideru, kunisu and sarai2 (sarai). They appear over and over and in abundant quantities on several Linear A tablets from Haghia Triada (HT 8 HT 10 HT 28 HT 85-68 HT 91 HT 93 HT 95 HT 114 HT 121 & HT 133), on HM 570, on Khania KH 10, Kophinas KO Za 1 and on Zakros ZA 20. We now know for certain that dideru means “einkorn (wheat)” and kunisu “emmer (wheat)”. It is also highly likely that sara2 (sarai) references “barley”, “flax” or “freekah”. Which one we cannot be sure, but it almost certainly has to be one of these. In addition, we also find dare and kasaru on HT 10. It stands to reason that, by elimination, dare and kasaru are probably either “millet” or “spelt” or vice versa. I have eliminated bran, bulgur, groats, lentils and vetch, as these crops appear to have been relatively less common. 

Free translation of HT 10:

emmer wheat on 4 hills + PA? + 16 1/2 bushel-like units of another type of grain (millet or spelt) *333? + RO + 6 *u325 + 14 bushel-like units of groats (?) + 2 1/2  of *301 (whatever that is), all stored in 8 vases, of which 2 are pithoi (very large) and also stored in 1 vessel of another type + 2 bushel-like units of bran, flax, millet or spelt & 16 young shoots of grain + 6 /12 of *312 TA ? & 6 bushel-like units of millet or spelt, of which 9 1/4 units were lost to death (i.e. never matured)...

My preliminary research into the types of grains cultivated in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Mediterranean has clearly facilitated this plausible decipherment of HT 10, and has moreover confirmed my even more accurate translations of several other Linear A tablets dealing with grain, almost all of them co-incidentally from Haghia Triada.



A major advance in the decipherment of Linear A, the impact of 22 Linear A ligatured logograms, of which 12 are in Mycenaean-derived Greek:

Linear A ligatured logograms

Here we see 22 ligatured logograms in Linear B. By ligatured logograms we mean two or more Linear A syllabograms bound together as one unit. To date, no previous researcher, not even Andreas Zeke of the Minoan Language Blog, has isolated any more than 10 ligatured logograms. This comes as a great surprise to me, if not a real shock. Considering the huge impact these 22 ligatured logograms is bound to have on the decipherment of Linear A, why any ancient language linguist in the past 117 years since the discovery of the first Linear A tablets at Knossos would not account for all 22 of the ligatured logograms I have taken firmly into account is beyond me.

Since there are at least 2 syllabograms bound together, it is impossible to determine which syllabogram comes first. This means that in the case of 2 ligatured syllabograms, the word represented may be reversed. For instance, in the case of the first ligature in the table below, the ligature could be either aka or kae, although the first is more plausible in the second in this case. If the first ligature is indeed aka, then it is highly likely that it is the Linear A equivalent of the Greek word aska, which is the archaic accusative of askos (here Latinized), meaning a leather bag or wine skin, more likely the second than the first. In the case of the third, we have either kuwa, the exact Linear A equivalent of Linear B kowa, which deciphered means girl”or if reversed, waku, which in ancient Greek is agu (Linear A orthography) or agos, meaning “any matter of religious awe/guilt/sacrifice”, of which the last definition is the most convincing.

12 Mycenaean-derived Greek ligatures:

Linear A logograms ligatured Greek


When it comes to ligatures consisting of more than 2 syllabograms, the number of permutations and combinations rises dramatically. Whereas with 2 ligatured logograms there are only 2 possibilities, with 3 there are 9, and with 4 there are 16… at least theoretically. However, in practical terms, just one syllabogram, the first on the left, very likely certainly takes precedence, meaning that the number of permutations and combinations is probably no greater than 2 even in these cases. However, there is no way of knowing for certain. For instance, what are we to make of the eleventh ligature, which can read as either mesiki or sikime or kimesi, or as 6 additional permutations? As it so happens, 2 translations seem most plausible. The first is mesiki, which can be translated as Greek meseigu (Latinized), meaning “in the middle”, whereas the second is kimesi, which can be rendered as keimesi, instrumental plural of keimos, “with muzzles or halters for a horse”. Either translation is perfectly plausible; so we must account for both.

All in all, of the 22 ligatured logograms, 12 or over half are susceptible to translation into Greek. If anything, this illustrates the great impact of the Mycenaean-derived superstratum on Linear A. In this table, only 10 ligatures appear to be in Old Minoan, i.e. the original Minoan language, aka the Minoan substratum. Finally, with the addition of these 22 ligatured logograms and a few more words I have recently unearthed, the number of words in our Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon soars from 988 to an astonishing 1022, which means that the corpus of Linear A vocabulary now amounts to at least 20 % of that for Linear B. No previous Lexicon of Linear A even approaches this upper limit. Prof. John G. Younger’s Linear A Lexicon, the most thorough-going to date, contains only 774 intact Linear A terms, exclusive of broken words with some syllabograms missing, strings of greater than 15 syllabograms, and any words containing numeric syllabograms, which are utterly indecipherable at any rate. This means that our Lexicon is an astonishing 24.3 % larger than that of Prof. Younger. In addition, I have managed to decipher at least 30 % of Linear B, the highest amount ever. I shall be soon publishing our Lexicon on my academia.edu account, by mid-July at the latest, and it is bound to have a considerable impact on the ancient linguistics community.


Linear A roundel pendant, Titisutisa, the name of a princess?

Linear a roundel Titisutisa onomastics

This Linear A roundel bears what is ostensibly a personal name ending in a. If indeed the feminine nominative singular ends in a in the Minoan language, as it does in most Indo-European occidental languages. However, since there are no genders in Basque, a language isolate, it is possible that there are none in Minoan, provided that it too is a language isolate. But even if it is, that does not necessarily imply that there are no genders.   


Did the archaic nominative and/or genitive singular feminine ending in ja/ya in Mycenaean Greek derive from the Minoan language?

teal banner feminine nominative or genitive

In the glossary below of:
A: masculine Mycenaean Linear B words ending in jo
B: feminine Mycenaean Linear B words ending in ja
C: Minoan Linear A words ending in ja

These are the keys:
nom. = nominative
gen. = genitive

All Linear B entries are drawn Latinized as is from Chris Tselentis’ Linear A Lexicon. 
 
A: Most Linear B nouns in jo are nominative:

A-da-ra-ti-jo Adrastios nom.
ai-ki-a2-ri-jo aigihalios = coastal, of the coast gen.
a-ka-ta-jo Aktaios nom.
a-ke-re-wi-jo Agrevios nom.
akorajo= used for communal purposes + for the marketplace gen.
a-mi-ni-si-jo Amnisos nom.
a-pi-no-e-wi-jo ethnic name of Amphinoevioi gen.
arejo = areios (divine epithet)nom.
a-te-mi-ti-jo = Artemitios nom.
da-ja-ro = Daiaros nom.
da-mi-ni-jo = Damnios nom.
da-ta-ja-ro = Dataiaros nom.
da-wi-jo = ethnic name of Davios gen.
de-u-ka-ri-jo = Deukalion nom.
di-ka-ta-jo = Diktaios Cf. Linear A nom.
di-u-jo + diwijo = belonging to Zeus gen.
du-ni-jo = Dynios nom.
dwo-jo = of two gen.
e-to-ni-jo = etonion = free-hold nom.
e-wi-ta-jo = ethnic name of Evitaios nom.
kakijo = made of copper gen
ku-te-se-jo = kyteseios = made from ebony gen.

B: Most Linear words in ja are nominative:

a-ko-ra-ja= used for communal purposes + for the marketplace gen.
a-mo-te-wi-ja armothevia = description of a pot (gen. sing.?)gen.
a-ne-moi-ere-ja = priestess of the winds nom.
a-ni-ja = ania = reins (neut. pl.) nom.
a-pa-ta-wa-ja = ethnic name of Aptarfaia nom.
a-ra-ka-te-ja = alakateiai = weavers nom.
a-ra-ru-ja = ararya = bound, equipped nom.
a-re-ja = areia (divine epithet) nom.
a-si-ja-ti-ja = Asiatiai nom.
a-si-wi-ja = Asivia nom.
a-te-re-wi-ja = Atreivia nom.
da-wi-ja = ethnic name of Davia gen.
de-di-ku-ja = dedikyia = being apprenticed adjectival
di-pi-si-ja = ethnic name of Dipsia gen.
di-u-ja = diyia = priestess of the god Zeus nom.
e-qe-si-ja = related to a follower gen.
e-ru-mi-ni-ja = elymniai = roof beams nom.
e-sa-re-wi-ja = Esalevia nom.
e-to-ki-ja = entoihia = fittings for insertion in walls nom.
e-wi-ri-pi-ja = ethnic name of Evripia gen.  
i-je-re-ja = priestess nom.
i-ni-ja = personal name = Inia nomm.
i-pe-me-de-ja = personal name =Iphemedeia nom.
ka-da-mi-ja = somee product related to garden cress nom.
ka-ki-ja/ka-ke-ja = made of copper = khalkia gen.
ka-pi-ni-ja = kapnia = chimney nom.
ke-ra-me-ja = personal name = Kerameia nom.
ke-ro-si-ja = geronsia = council of elders nom. + gen.
ke-se-ne-wi-ja = xenwia adjectival
ko-ki-re-ja = kolhireia = shell=shaped, spiral adjectival
ko-no-si-ja = Knosia = ethnic name of Knossos gen.
nu-wa-i-ja = numfaia = kind of textile of water-lily colour nom. + gen.
pa-ta-ja = paltaia =  arrow nom.
po-si-da-e-ja = Posidaeia nom.
pu-ka-ta-ri-ja = type of cloth nom.
pu2-te-ri-ja = phuteria = planted, cultivated adjectival
qe-ra-si-ja = Kerasia (name of goddess) nom.
ra-e-ja = laheia = made of stone gen.
ra-ja = Raia nom.
ri-ne-ja = lineiai = flax workers nom.
ro-u-si-je-wi-ja = Lousieveia = originating in/from Lousos gen.
se-to-i-ja = Setoia nom.
si-to-po-ti-ni-ja= sitopotnia = goddess of grain nom. + gen.
te-o-po-ri-ja = Theophoria = religious feast nom.
ti-ri-ja= tria = three nom.
we-a-re-ja = vealeia = made of glass adjectival + gen.

C: what are all the Minoan Linear A words below ending in ja supposed to represent? Are all or even some of them either nouns or adjectives? Just because they are in Mycenaean Linear B does not constitute proof that they are in Linear A. Nevertheless, they could be.    

NOTE that it is highly unusual, if not inexplicable, for there to be 57 words with the ultimate ja in Linear A, but none whatsoever ending in jo. This leads me to believe that it is extremely risky to assume that all of these Minoan words with ultimate ja are either nominative or genitive feminine singular. Just because they are in Mycenaean Linear B does not at all necessarily imply that they are so in Linear A. That would be jumping to conclusions. Nevertheless, there may be a case for assuming that Minoan Linear A words with ultimate ja may possibly be either nominative or genitive feminine singular, in which case it would appear that the Mycenaean nominative or genitive feminine singular words with the ultimate ja may possibly be derived from their Minoan precedents. But there is no way of proving this.

C: 57/988 Minoan Linear A words with the ultimate ja:

amaja
aseja
asuja
dija Cf. LB di-u-ja = diyia = priestess of the god Zeus
duja
esija
ija
iruja
itaja
jadireja 10
jasaja
jatoja
kija
kiraja
koja
kuja
kupa3rija *
kupaja
masaja (of larger? L&S 426)
masuja 20
mireja (belonging to a sheep? L&S 443) 
musajanemaruja
namarasasaja
nenaarasaja
nemaruja
nenaarasaja
nukisikija *
oteja
pa3kija
paja 30
pasarija *
pija
piwaja
qapaja
qeja
radasija *
raja
rasasaja
redamija *
reduja 40
reja
saja/sajea
sejarapaja
sidija *
sija
sudaja
suja
Sukirteija
tija 
tikuja 50
tiraduja
tuimaja
Tukidija
Tunija
waja (land)
wija
zanwaija 57

These 57 Minoan Linear A words may be either:
1 the primordial nominative singular feminine
OR
2 the primordial genitive singular feminine
OR 
3 neither

The last scenario is just as probable as the first two.


Decipherment of Linear A tablet HT 14 (Haghia Triada) with John G. Youngers errors corrected:

Linear A tablet HT 14 Haghia Triada

 


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Decipherment of the RECTO of Linear A tablet HT 86 (Haghia Triada):

Linear A Haghia Triada HT 86

It is possible to decipher this tablet and several others dealing with grain crops with a reasonable degree of accuracy and, in the case of some words, with complete accuracy. The Linear A word akaru is almost certainly the equivalent of akaro, and not of akareu, in Linear B, the latter interpretation of John G. Younger being utterly out of the question in context. The standard Old Minoan words for emmer wheat and “roasted einkorn” are kunisu and dideru. The second of these words, dideru, is equivalent to Linear B, didero, but neither word appears in any later ancient Greek dialect, leading me to draw the inference that dideru/didero is either archaic proto-Mycenaean Greek or that it falls within the pre-Greek substratum or alternatively that it is Old Minoan (OM). As for dame, it appears to be dative singular for damu (Linear A) or damo (Linear B), hence grains for the village wheat”. Finally, minute would appear to signify “and for one month”, te being enclitic, meaning “and”, with the entire phrase derived from mini = “month”. The actual case structure for the ultimate u has yet to be determined for Old Minoan. Unfortunately, it will be some time before I can tackle Old Minoan grammar (declensions and conjugations), as I must first decipher as many Old Minoan, pre-Greek substratum and Mycenaean-derived words as I can in Linear A. And these run to at least 300 out of 988 Minoan words I have isolated.


Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 988 words, with 214 more entries than in John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon:

comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 988 terms

This lexicon comprises all of the intact words in John G. Youngers Reverse Linear A Lexicon (which is far from comprehensive) plus every last intact word on every single tablet at his site, wherever any of the latter are not found in the former, along with additional Linear vocabulary which I have found on my own. By my count, there are 988 words, 214 more than in Prof. John G. Youngers Reverse Linear A Lexicon, which has 774 entries, not counting numeric syllabograms, of which no one knows the phonetic values at any rate + long strings + broken series of syllabograms, though I may have made the occasional error in addition, since I had to subtract some repetitive words and add others from the tablets, which are not in the Reverse Linear A Lexicon. Words which are apparent variants of one another are listed under one entry, e.g.

daka/daki/daku/dakuna 
dakusene(ti)
japa/japadi/japaku
kira/kiro/kirisi/kiru
maru/maruku/maruri 
merasasaa/merasasaja
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi
piku/pikui/pikuzu 
reda/redamija/redana/redasi 
saro/saru/sarutu
tami/tamia/tamisi
zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea

The following entries have been deliberately omitted:
1 Words containing any syllabograms which are either partially or wholly numeric, since we do not know what the phonetic values of these syllabograms are,
2 Broken series of syllabograms &
3 Strings of syllabograms > than 15 characters.

This is the raw Lexicon, without definitions. Definitions of Old Minoan (OM), pre-Greek substratum (PGS) and Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM) terms will soon be published in sub-Lexicons pursuant to this Lexicon on my academia.edu account. 

adai 
adakisika
adara/adaro/adaru
ade/adu 
Adunitana  
adureza 
aduza
ajesa 
aju 
Akanu/Akanuzati  = Archanes (Crete)  = 10
aka 
akaru 
aki/akii  = garlic
akipiete(ne?)
akumina
ama 
amaja
amawasi
amidao/amidau 
amita = 20
ana 
ananusijase
anatu 
anau
anepiti
aparane 
apaki 
apero 
api 
ara = 30
araju 
arako
aranare/aranarai (sing.) 
arati
aratiatu 
aratu  
arauda
aredai
Arenesidi  
aresana = 40
ari/arinita
arisu
arokaku
arote 
aru/arudara
aruma 
aruqaro
arura 
asadaka
asamune = 50
asara2 
asasumaise
ase/asi
aseja 
asidatoi 
asijaka
asikira 
asisupoa
asona
asuja = 60
Asupuwa 
atade 
atanate 
atare 
ati 
atika
atiru
atu 
aurete 
awapi = 70
azura

daa 
dadai/dadana
dadipatu
dadumata
dadumina/dadumine
dai/daina
daipita 
dajute
daka/daki/daku/dakuna = 80
dakusene(ti)
damate Cf. Linear B damate
dame/dami/daminu  
danasi 
danekuti
daqaqa
daqera
dare 
darida 
daropa = 90
darunete 
daserate
dasi 
datapa 
datara/datare
data2 
datu  
dawa  (Haghia Triada)  CF LB dawo
daweda 

dea = 100
deauwase 
dedi
dejuku
demirirema 
depa/depu 
deripa
detaa 
dide/didi
dideru
didikase/didikaze  = 110
dii 
dija/dije
dika 
Dikate  = Mount Dikte
dikime
dikise 
dima
dimaru
dimedu
dinaro = 120
dinau
dipa3a 
dipaja
diqise 
dirasa 
diredina
dirina
diru 
disa
disipita = 130
ditajaru
ditamana  = dittany
du/dua/duja
dumaina 
dumedi
dumitatira2 (dumitatirai)
dunawi
dupa3na
dupu3re 
dura2 = 140
durare
duratiqe
dureza/durezase
dusi/dusini
dusima 
dusu
duti
duwi 
duzu

edamisa = 150
edu 
eka 
epa3
ero
esija
etanasu
etori 
ezusiqe

ia 
Ida/Idaa/Idada/Idapa3  = Mount Ida  = 160
Idamate/idamete  
Idarea 
idunesi 
iduti 
ija 
ijadi 
ijapame  
ijate 
ika 
Ikesedesute   = 170
Ikurina  
ikuta
ima
imeti 
inaimadu
inajapaqa
ipinama
ira2 
iruja
isari  = 180
ise
itaja
itaki
itijukui 
itinisa
Ititikuna  
Izurinita  

jaa
jadi/jadikitu = 190
jadireja 
jadisi
jadu
jadurati
jai 
jainwaza
jaiterikisu 
jaitose
jaja
jakisikinu = 200
jako/jaku/jakute
jamaa
jamauti
jami/jamidare 
januti
japa/japadi/japaku 
japametu 
japanidami 
japarajase
jara2qe = 210
jara/jare/jaremi 
jarepu2  
jarete
jari/jarina/jarinu
jaripa3ku
jarisapa
jaru/jarui 
jasaja
jasamu 
jasapai = 220
jasaraanane
jasasarame
jasidara
jasea/jasepa 
jasie 
jasumatu 
jata/jatai/jatapi 
jate/jateo
jatimane
jatituku+ jatituku (repeated) = 230
jatoja
jawi
jedi 
jeka 
jemanata
jetana 
jua
judu
juerupi 
juka = 240
juma/jumaku
juraa
jureku
juresa 
jutiqa
juu

ka (extremely common)
kada/kadasaa
kadi 
kadumane   = 250
kadusi 
kae
kai/kaika 
kairo
kaji/kaju 
kaki/kaku
kakunete
kami
kana/kanatiti/kanau 
kanajami = 260
kanaka 
kanita 
kanuti 
kapa/kapaqe/kapi 
kaporu 
kapusi
kaqa/kaqe
kara 
karona
karopa2 (karopai) = 270
karu  
karunau 
kasaru 
kasi 
kasidizuitanai  
Kasikidaa   
kasitero 
katanite
kataro  scarab (Egyptian)
kati 
kaudeta = 280 
keda 
keire 
kekiru
kera/kero  
keta/kete 
ketesunata  
kezadidi
kida/kidi 
kidapa 
kidaro = 290
kidata
kidini
kidiora
kii/kiipa
kija  
kika 
kikadi 
kikiraja
kimu 
kina = 300
kinima
kinite
kipaa 
kipisi (fairly common) 
kiqa
kira/kiro 
kireta2 
kiretana 
kireza
kiro/kirisi/kiru  = 310
kiso 
kisusetu 
kitai/kitei 
kitanasija 
kitiqa
kito 
koiru 
koja
kopu
koru  = 320
Kosaiti  
kuda
kuja
kujude 
kuka
kukudara 
kumaju 
kumapu 
kunisu
kupa/kupi = 330 
kupa3natu 
kupa3nu 
kupa3pa3
kupa3rija  
kupaja 
kupari 
Kupatikidadia  
kupazu
kuqani 
kura/kuramu  =340
kurasaqa 
kureda 
kureju 
kuro/kurotu 
kuto 
kuruku
kuruma 
kutiti  Kutaistos Cf. LB Kitaito
kutukore
kuzuni = 350

maa
madadu 
madi 
mai/maimi
majutu 
makaise
makaita 
makarite
makidete 
mana/manapi (common)= 360
maniki
manirizu 
manuqa
maru/maruku/maruri
masa/masaja 
masi/masidu
masuja
masuri
matapu
mateti = 370
matiti 
matizaite 
matu 
maza/mazu 
meda
medakidi
mekidi
mepajai
mera 
merasasaa/merasasaja (very common)  = 380
mesasa 
mesenurutu
meto 
meturaa 
meza 
mia
midai 
midani 
midamara2 (midamarai)
midara = 390
midemidiu
mie
miima 
mijanika
mijuke 
mikidua
mikisena
minaminapii
minedu
mini/miniduwa  = 400
minumi
minute (sing. minuta2 – minutai) 
mio/miowa
mipa
mireja 
miru
mirutarare
misimiri
misuma
mita = 410
miturea 
mizase
mujatewi
muko 
mupi 
murito
muru
musaja 

naa
nadare = 420
nadi/nadiradi/nadiredi
nadiwi
nadu
nadunapu2a
naisizamikao   
naka
nakiki
nakininuta
nakuda
namarasasaja  = 430
namatiti
nami
namikua/namikuda
namine 
nanau 
nanipa3
napa3du
narepirea
naridi
narinarikui  = 440
narita
naroka
naru 
nasarea
nasekimi 
nasi 
nasisea
nataa/nataje
natanidua
natareki (common)  = 450
nati 
nazuku/nazuru
nea 
neakoa  
nedia
nedira
neka/nekisi 
nemaduka
nemaruja
nemiduda = 460
nemusaa
Nenaarasaja 
neqa
neramaa
nerapa/nerapaa 
nere 
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi
nesasawi
nesekuda
neta = 470
netapa 
netuqe
nidapa
nidiki/nidiwa 
niduti
nijanu
niku/nikutitii
nimi
nipa3  
nira2 (nirai) -or- nita2 (nisai)  = 480
niro/niru 
nisi 
nisudu
nisupu
niti
nizuka
nizuuka
nua
nude
nuki/nukisikija  = 490
numida/numideqe 
nupa3ku (extremely common)
nupi
nuqetu 
nuti/nutini
Nutiuteranata  
nutu
nuwi

odami/odamia
opi = 500
ora2dine (oraidine)
osuqare
otanize
oteja 

pa (common)/paa
padaru
padasuti 
pade
padupaa
Paito = Phaistos = 510
pa3a/pa3ana
pa3da 
pa3dipo
pa3katari 
pa3kija 
pa3ku
pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi
pa3pa3ku
pa3qa
pa3roka  = 520
pa3sase
pa3waja
paja/pajai/pajare
paka (very common)/paku (very common)/pakuka 
pamanuita  
panuqe 
para 
parane 
paria 
paroda = 530
parosu
pasarija
pase 
pasu 
pata/patada/pataqe/patu 
patane 
pia/pii 
pija/pijani/pijawa 
piku/pikui/pikuzu
pimata  pimento = 540
pimitatira2 (pimitatirai) 
pina/pini 
pirueju
pisa
pita/pitaja 
pitakase/pitakesi
pitara 
piwaa
piwaja
piwi = 550
posa 
potokuro
pu2juzu
pu2su/pu2sutu 
pu3pi
pu3tama
puko
punikaso
puqe
pura2  = 560
pusa/pusi
pusuqe

qara2wa 
qa2ra2wa
qajo
qaka
qanuma
qapa3 (qapai) 
qapaja/qapajanai
qaqada = 570
qaqaru 
qareto 
Qaqisenuti  
qaro 
qasaraku 
qatidate 
qati/qatiki 
qatiju 
qedeminu
qeja = 580
qeka 
qenamiku 
qenupa
qepaka
qepita 
qepu
qequre 
qera2u/qera2wa
qeri
qero = 590
qerosa 
qesite
qesizue
qesupu
qesusui
qeta2e
qeti/qetiradu 
qetune 
qisi
qoroqa = 600 
quqani 

raa
rada/radaa/radakuku/radami
radarua 
radasija
radizu
radu 
ra2i
ra2ka 
ra2madami   = 610
ra2miki
ra2natipiwa 
ra2pu/ra2pu2
ra2ri (rairi)  = lily
ra2rore
ra2ru
ra2saa 
raja/raju
rakaa 
raki/rakii/rakisi/raku = 620
ranatusu
rani 
raodiki 
rapa/rapu
rapu3ra
raqeda
rarasa
rarua
rasa/rasi 
rasamii = 630
rasasaa/rasasaja
rata/ratapi 
ratada
ratise (ritise?) 
razua
rea 
reda (common)/redana/redasi 
redamija
redise 
reduja = 640
reja/rejapa 
rekau 
rekotuku 
reku/rekuqa/rekuqe 
rema/rematuwa 
remi
renara/renaraa 
renute
repa 
Repu2dudatapa   = 650
repu3du
reqasuo
reradu
rera2tusi
reratarumi 
rerora2
rese/resi/resu  See sere
retaa/retada
retaka 
retata2 = 660
retema 
reza
rezakeiteta 
ria (common) 
ridu
rikata
rima 
rimisi 
ripaku
ripatu = 670
riqesa
rira/riruma
rirumate
risa
Risaipa3dai  
Risumasuri  
ritaje 
rite/ritepi
ritoe 
rodaa/rodaki = 680
roika
roke/roki/roku
romaku 
romasa
ronadi
rore/roreka 
rosa  = rose 
rosirasiro 
rotau 
roti = 690
rotwei 
rua 
rudedi
ruiko
ruja  
rujamime 
ruka/rukaa/ruki/rukike 
Rukito
ruko
rukue = 700
ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase 
rupoka
ruqa/ruqaqa (common)
rusa (common/rusaka
rusi
rutari 
rutia 
ruzuna

sadi
saja/sajama/sajamana = 710
sajea
saka
sama/samaro
samidae 
samuku 
sanitii
sapo/sapi
saqa
saqeri
sara2 (sarai)/sarara =720
sareju 
saro/saru/sarutu 
sasaja
sasame  = sesame
sasupu 
sato 
sea/sei 
sedina 
sedire
seikama = 730
Seimasusaa
seitau
sejarapaja  
sejasinataki  
sekadidi
sekatapi
sekidi  
Sekiriteseja  
sekutu 
semake = 740
semetu 
senu
sepa
sere 
sesapa3
Sesasinunaa  
Setamaru
Seterimuajaku
setira 
Setoija   = 750
Sewaude   
sezami 
sezanitao
sezaredu
sezatimitu 
sia 
sidare/sidate
sidi/sidija 
sii/siida/siisi  
siitau = 760
sija 
Sijanakarunau
sika 
siketapi
sikine 
Sikira/sikirita
sima 
simara 
simita 
simito/simitu  = mouse = 770
sina
sinada
sinae  
sinakanau (common)
sinakase  
sinamiu
sinatakira
sinedui
sipiki 
sipu3ka = 780
sire/siro/siru/sirute 
siriki 
Sirumarita2   
Sitetu  
situ 
siwamaa
sokanipu  
sokemase 
sudaja 
suja = 790
Sukirita/Sukiriteija  = Sybrita
suniku (common)
supa3 (supai) 
supi/supu 
sure 
Suria  
suropa 
sutu/sutunara
suu
suzu = 800

taa
tadaki/tadati
tadeuka 
taikama
Tainaro
tainumapa
Ta2merakodisi 
ta2re/ta2reki 
ta2riki
Ta2rimarusi    = 810
ta2tare
ta2tite
ta2u 
tajusu 
takaa/takari
taki/taku/takui
tamaduda
tanamaje
tanate/tanati
Tanunikina  = 820
tamaru 
tami/tamia/tamisi 
tani/taniria/tanirizu 
taniti  
tapa 
tapiida
tapiqe
tara/tarina
tarasa
tarawita = 830
tarejanai 
tarikisu 
taritama
tasa/tasaja 
tasise 
tata/tati 
tateikezare
tedasi/tedatiqa
tedekima
teepikia = 840
Teizatima  
tejai 
tejare 
tekare
teke/teki
tekidia
temada/temadai
temeku 
temirerawi 
tenamipi = 850
tenata/tenataa 
tenatunapa3ku  
tenekuka 
teneruda
teniku 
tenitaki
tenu/tenumi (common)
tepi
tera/tere/teri tera 
teraseda = 860
tereau 
tereza
teri/teridu 
terikama
tero/teroa
terusi (extremely common) 
tesi/tesiqe 
Tesudesekei 
tetita2
tetu = 870
Tewirumati
Tidama  
tidata 
tidiate
tiditeqati 
tiduitii/tiisako 
tija 
tika 
tikiqa
tikuja = 880
Tikuneda
timaruri/timaruwite
timasa 
timi 
timunuta
tina 
Tinakarunau
tinata (common)/tinita
tinesekuda
tininaka = 890
tinu/tinuka 
tinusekiqa 
tio
tiqatediti 
tiqe/tiqeri/tiqeu
tiraduja 
tira2 
tirakapa3
tire 
tisa = 900
tisiritua 
tisudapa
Tita
titema
titiku
titima
tiu
tiumaja
tizanukaa
toipa = 910
tome
toraka  = Linear B toraka
toreqa
tuda
tujuma
tukidija
tukuse
tuma/tumi/tumitizase
tunada/tunapa
tunapa3ku = 920
Tunija
tupadida
tuqe
turaa 
Turunuseme 
turusa
tusi/tusu/tusupu2
tute/tutesi

udami/udamia 
udimi = 930
udiriki
uju 
uki
Uminase  
unaa
unadi (common) 
unakanasi  
unana 
unarukanasi/unarukanati
upa = 940
uqeti 
urewi 
uro
uso/usu
uta/uta2 
utaise
utaro 
uti 

waduko
waduna = 950
Wadunimi  
waja
wanai 
wanaka 
wapusua  
wara2qa
watepidu
watumare 
wazudu
wetujupitu = 960
widina
widui
wija 
Wijasumatiti  
Winadu
winipa
winu 
winumatari 
wiraremite 
wireu = 970
wirudu
Wisasane  
witero 

zadeu/zadeujuraa
zadua
zama/zame
zanwaija
zapa
zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea
zasata = 980
zirinima
zudu
zukupi
zuma
zupaku
zusiza
zusu
zute = 988

VERSUS Younger = 774 ( – numeric syllabograms + long strings + broken series of syllabograms). Hence Youngers lexicon amounts to 78.3 % of this one, i.e. this lexicon contains 214 more entries and is 21.7 % longer.


For the first time ever in history, a conjectural full restoration of an entire Linear A tablet, ZA 20 (Zakros):

Linear A tablet ZA 20 Zakros restored

In the previous post, I conjectured how the text of the missing top of Linear A tablet ZA 20 (Zakros) might have read. While we shall never know for certain, one thing is sure: we do know that the entire tablet dealt with grain crops. It therefore stands to reason that the missing text on the top must have inventoried grains. With this firmly in mind, I have endeavoured to reconstruct what I believe how the missing text may have read. It could very well have run something along these lines:

kireta2 (kiretai) 11 dideru 42 dideru 30 qerie 22 qerie 6

NOTE that kireta2 (kiretai) is the Minoan orthography for Greek krithai (Latinized), which of course is barley.

Translation: 11 bushel-like units of barley, 42 units of emmer wheat, 30 units of emmer wheat mixed with 22 units of roasted einkorn, and 6 units of pure roasted einkorn

for a total of 111

which when taken into account with total of 19 on the bottom half of the tablet yields a grand total of 130.

Hence the decipherment of the entire tablet with the top half restored as conjectured, reads as follows:

11 bushel-like units of barley, 42 units of emmer wheat, 30 units of emmer wheat mixed with 22 units of roasted einkorn, and 6 units of pure roasted einkorn + ro? with dry units of measurement (i.e. bushel-like units) + 4 units of mi? + ? + ? + along with 1 bushel-like unit of wheat 7 12 bushel-like units of te*123 (flax?) + 2 bushels of rumatase (spelt?) for a grand total of 130.

As you can readily see, this decipherment makes perfect sense, and in any case, even if the text of original tablet did not read quite this way, it must have read very much like this.

You will forgive my awful scribal hand. I cannot hope to be able to replicate the finer hand of the original scribe.


A solid decipherment of Linear A tablet ZA 20 (Zakros), which definitely deals with several types of crops:

ZA 20

Even though at the very least the top half of Linear A tablet ZA 20 (Zakros) is missing, it definitely deals with several types of crops. This is abundantly clear from the extant text on the bottom half (or less) of the tablet, in which we find, not one but 2 references to wheat, and to another crop, rumatase, which remains undeciphered, but which in all probability means “flax”. This word could also be Mycenaean-derived New Minoan for luma (Latinized Greek) for “offscourings”, the process whereby impurities are removed from grain crops, in this case, the extraction of chaff from wheat. It makes perfect sense in context.

Given that at least half of the top of this tablet is lost, the question is, what does it reference? It is apparent from the remaining extant text on the bottom of this tablet, which deals with wheat twice, that the missing upper part of the tablet should deal with grain crops. There are indeed several words in Linear A which are grain crop-specific. These are dideru =  “emmer wheat”, qerie =  “roasted einkorn” and sara2/sarai =  “sharia wheat”. It is highly likely that the missing top portion of this tablet deals with at least one of these crops, or with 2 or even all 3 of them. In addition, mention may well have been made of either or both barley and flax crops.

standard ideograms for crops in Linear A

In view of the fact that the sum total for all crops on this tablet = 130, whereas the totals for the crops on the bottom half = 19 only, we are left with 111 units of something unaccounted for... and what might be that something?... other grain crops, of course. Otherwise, how are we to account for the 111 missing units on the lost portion of this tablet? We cannot. These 111 units, which were definitely tallied on the missing top of the tablet, must have been standard units of dry measurement for grain crops, something akin to our modern bushels. Of course, bushels are merely a speculative approximation, since there is no way we can know what the standard units of dry measurement for crops were either in the Minoan or Mycenaean eras, historically remote as they are.  All we can do is hazard an approximation. But at least bushels at least give us some idea of what we are dealing with here.

Evidence for a substantive inventory of several grain crops on this tablet is further buttressed by the presence of the word durezase, in an oblique case of dureza, which I have (and I believe correctly) deciphered as one standard unit of dry measurement in Minoan, in other words one unit roughly approximating the modern bushel. So the accumulation of circumstantial evidence lends even further credence to our decipherment. Finally, the decipherment makes so much sense contextually that it is more likely than not correct.    


Provisional count of Mycenaean-derived vocabulary in Linear A = 33.4 %:

provisional count of New Minoan words in Linear A

I have just finished calculating the provisional maximum number of probable/possible Mycenaean-derived New Minoan words in our Linear A Lexicon of 988 words, and the count comes to 330, which is 33.4%. However, there is still a good deal of research to be done before I can determine how many of these potential New Minoan words are in fact just that. I estimate that, once I have eliminated the possible candidates, and restricted myself to the probable, this figure should drop to around 25%, which is roughly in line with the percentage of French words in English = 29%.


Linear A tablet ARKH 2 (Arkhanes), dealing with wine and pomegranate juice?

Linear A tablet ARKH 2 Arkhanes

Linear A tablet ARKH 2 (Arkhanes) appears to deal with wine and pomegranate juice. This being so, we have now deciphered 2 Linear A tablets centred on this subject. If the two decipherments withstand scrutiny, they lend credence to the notion that wine and pomegranate juice were produced in pre-Mycenaean Minoan times. It is uncertain whether or not pomegranate juice was mixed with wine, but if it was, the composite alcoholic beverage would have been delicious. We recall that ancient wine, even as late as Roman times, was more sour than modern wine; hence, the need to sweeten it. The most common sweetener was honey, but it is conceivable that pomegranate juice was also used, at least in the middle and early late Minoan eras.

On a final note, I have greatly enhanced and digitized the original of this tablet, which was originally under-focused and fuzzy.

LinneaTanner.com - Apollo's Raven

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