The top of Minoan Linear A Tablet ZA 20 (Zakros) restored on academia.edu Click on the link below to read this key contribution to research into Minoan Linear A tablets: Minoan Linear A tablets appear to be classed in two primary areas of interest (a) agriculture, and more specifically, crops and grains and (b) religious and sacerdotal. It is to the former that we turn our attention in this study. Focusing on certain Linear A tablets which deal primarily or almost exclusively with grains, we find that these three tablets yield the most promising results, Haghia Triada tablets HT 86 & 95 and Zakros tablet ZA 20. While HT 86 and HT 95 are intact, ZA 20 is not. Other Linear A tablets from Haghia Triada also contribute to our findings. Is it possible to envision an intact version of the original ZA 20 tablet from Zakros? We believe so, and with that firmly in mind we have attempted the first ever restoration of the top of ZA 20, resulting in what amounts to a plausible intact version, however hypothetical, of the original. So without further ado, we present the full restoration of our version of Linear A tablet ZA 20.
Origin of the saffron crocus traced back to Greece: Since ancient times, saffron has been giving dishes a golden-yellow hue and an aromatic flavour. The use of the stigmas of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus) is depicted in frescos from Crete and Santorini, which are as old as 3600 years. Nowadays, the valuable plant is mainly cultivated in Iran accounting for more than 90% of the saffron production. For the remainder of this informative article, click on the logo image above. Saffron: Map of Ancient Greece illustrating the distribution of saffron:
Linear A nodule on weighing emmer wheat with 3 supersyllabograms:
This rare Linear A nodule is of particular interest because it contains 3 supersyllabograms, JE SE & U. I am unable to decipher JE and SE, but U appears to be the first syllabogram, actually a vowel, i.e. the first syllable of the word it represents, which in this case would appear to be the Mycenaean-derived word, udoro = u3droj = a water flask. But this interpretation may not make sense in the context of weighing KUNI(SU) or emmer wheat, unless a certain standardized amount of water in a water flask were poised at the other end of the scale measuring the emmer wheat. This is surely open to speculation.
Academia.edu THESIS The Minoan and Mycenaean Agricultural Trade and Trade Routes in the Mycenaean Empire by Rita Roberts: Click on this logo to download her thesis: We are proud to announce that Rita Roberts has fulfilled the requirements of her second year of university, and has passed with a mark of 85 %. We have awarded her 90 % for thesis, The Minoan and Mycenaean Agricultural Trade and Trade Routes in the Mycenaean Empire, which is a finely researched document I highly recommend to any and all. It deals in great detail with every conceivable aspect of Minoan and Mycenaean agricultural trade via their trade routes in the Mycenaean Empire, ca. 1600-1450 BCE. We congratulate Rita on her splendid achievement, and we look forward to her fuflling the exacting requirements of her third and final year of university which commences on July 1 2018, Canada Day. Once she has completed her third year, she will have earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in Minoan and Mycenaean studies.
Linear A tablet HT 18 (Haghia Triada) is one of the most significant of all Linear A tablets with a Mycenaean-derived superstrate:
Linear A tablet HT 18 (Haghia Triada) is one of the most significant of all Linear A tablets with a Mycenaean-derived superstrate, because by means of supersyllabograms only, ie. QE + the ideogram for “wheat/barley῎, KI + the ideogram for “barley῎ and NI + the ideogram for “figs῎ ― and take special note of this! ― with NI incharged in a square, it conveys in the most condensed manner possible every possible interpretation of Mycenaean-derived vocabulary appearing on the tablet. There can be little or no doubt but that KI is the supersyllabogram for KIRETANA/KIRETA2 = “barley῎ kriqani/aj and that NI, and this is the clever little trick the scribe employs, represents fig trees in a field, since the supersyllabogram NI (for figs) is enclosed in a square, representing a field, in other words not just figs, but fig trees, are in a field.
All-new complete decipherment of Linear A tablet HT 86 (Haghia Triada):
In the previous post, we witnessed the almost complete decipherment of Linear A tablet HT 95 (Haghia Triada). Now we are presented with a full decipherment down to the last word of HT 86 (Haghia Triada), which is practically a mirror-image of HT 95. This is the first time ever I have succeeded in deciphering two almost identical Linear A tablets inscribed entirely in Old Minoan (OM), the original Minoan substrate language. This constitutes a major advancement in the decipherment of Linear A, all the more so, since DAME & SARU appear on other Linear A tablets from Haghia Triada. So we are making at least some progress in the decipherment of the original Minoan substrate language, Old Minoan (OM).
Here is the decipherment of HT 86:
1. AKARU (in a) field, KUNI…
2. SU = emmer wheat + ideogram for “wheat” + fractions 20 +SARU = barley (sha’ir, Arabic) 20
3. DIDERU = emmer wheat QARA2WA = roasted wheat kernels 10
4. ADU = unit of dry measurement something like bushels + DAME = chickpea condiment + + ideogram for “wheat” fraction 20
5. MINUTE = finely sifted grain as in Egyptian hieroglyhics
1. AKARU (in a) field, KU…
2. NISU = emmer wheat + ideogram for “grain” 20 + SARU = barley (as above)
3. DIDE… (truncated) = DIDERU = emmer wheat, probably 10 or 20.
Mycenaean Linear B units of dry measurement:
This chart speaks for itself. Notice that at least 4 of these dry units of measurement in Linear A have counterparts in Linear A.
All-new decipherment of Linear A tablet HT 8 (Haghia Triada) dealing with multiple crops:
This is the first time I have attempted to decipher Linear A tablet HT 8 (Haghia Triada), and I have met with considerable success in deciphering it for the most part. It quite clearly deals with multiple crops. Some explanation is in order. On the RECTO, we find the supersyllabogram KI, which means KIRETAI, in Greek kri/qai, meaning barley of which there are 10 units, something like bushels (a mere approximation as we cannot know that the standard units of measurement for crops were either in Linear A or in Linear B). Next comes the supersyllabogram PA3 (PAI), which probably refers to pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi Old Minoan (OM) = millet -or- spelt. KARATI on line 2 is also OM and appears to correspond to Anatolian, karasa = a large jar, which makes sense in context. PA3 (PAI), which probably refers to pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi Old Minoan (OM) = millet -or- spelt is then repeated. Line 3 begins with the supersyllabogram (SSYL) TE, which means tereza, OM for the standard unit of liquid measurement, while qanuma is OM for some kind of pulse crop, any one of broad beans (faba/fava), chick peas, lentils or vetch. On line 4 we find the word SIKIRA si/kera, a sweet-fermented liquor, Cf. Linear B sikero. When we combine this word with KIRETANA kri/qania on line 5 we get SIKIRA KIRETANA, which means of course a barley-like sweet-fermented liquor, in other words, beer, probably sweetened with honey.
VERSO: SUPU2 is a pithos or alternatively sappu, which is Semitic for bowl (practically the same thing). Hence, this decipherment is sound. The SSYL KA probably refers to karasa (Anatolian), meaning a large jar, which reinforces the decipherment of SUPU2. PA3 (PAI) on line 2 again refers to millet or spelt. ZARI- continued on line 3 with – RE is unknown, but has something to do with crops, followed as it is with the symbols for harvesting shares. KAPA karpa/ is ripe crops. PAJARA on line 4 appears to mean indentured land.
All in all, this decipherment is coherent, and holds together well.
Linear A tablet PY Ub 1318a (Pylos) – millet or spelt:
This is Linear A tablet PY Ub 1318a (Pylos), which deals with millet or spelt, and mentions switches or something bent, which I take to be scythes.
The supersyllabogram PA pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi OM = millet -or- spelt -or- pa3qe, paiqe (+ ideogram for wheat) LIG = a kind of grain similar to wheat appears on all of these tablets from Haghia Triada (HT), Petras (PE), Tylissos (TY) and Zakros (ZA)
HT 43 gr HT 93 gr (x2) HT 120 gr (x3) HT 125 oo HT 128 gr KH 27 gr PE 1 (x2) TY 3 oo ZA 6 gr (x3) ZA 11 (x5) ZA 18 gr ZA 28 gr
all of which which deal with grains, with the exception of HT 125, dealing with olive oil. The decipherment of millet or spelt (one or the other) is confirmed. It is impossible to decipher PA in the instance of olive oil.
The supersyllabogram KI kitina NM1 ktoi/na/ktoina/siaj probably means a border of a plot of land/territory Cf. Linear B kotona kotoina ktoi/na = plot of land. There is no way of substantiating this claim. However, it does make sense, given that it appears on all of rhe following Linear A tablets from Haghia Triada (HT), on one from Tylissos (TY) and one from Zakros (ZA):
HT 8 oo HT 9 wi HT 16 oo HT 28 oo HT 44 gr HT 50 oo (x2) HT 91 oo HT 101 oo (x2) HT 116 (x2) HT 125 oo HT 129 oo HT 140 oo (x2) TY 3 (x3) ZA 18 oo
All of these tablets except one apparently deal with olive trees, rather than olive oil. The one exception is HT 44, which deals with grain, another crop which is grown on plots of land.
4-sided Cretan pictogram bar with end shown & interpretations of pictograms:
Cretan pictograms, Medallion E, Knossos, after Sir Arthur Evans:
A few of the Cretan pictograms on Medallion E, Knossos, lend themselves to possible/probable/definite decipherment. These are:
definite: 5. & 8. (adze, labrys)
probable: 3. & 7. (spice container, saffron)
possible: 9. 11. 12. (olive oil lamp, some kind of floral crop, dagger)
Everything else is indecipherable.
So-called Cretan hieroglyphs are not hieroglyphs at all. Example 2
These 2 palm-leaf tablets incised with Cretan symbols are the second example of why so-called Cretan hieroglyphs are not hieroglyphs at all. We note right off the top that there are only 12 symbols, all of which are in fact ideograms or logograms. The numeric symbols, 20, 60 and 100 on the fist tablet do not conform to Linear A and B standards.
As for the ideograms, they all appear to be indecipherable, but it is perhaps possible to assign meanings to a few of them. 2., which looks like Linear B ZU, may be a grain crop, possibly barley. 4. looks like some kind of animal, possibly a horse. 5. and 6. could be separate logograms, or put together, the could constitute one, in which case it could be a scythe. 7 is perhaps another kind of crop. 8 is probably an olive tree. 10. looks a great deal like 4., and may be the same ideogram. 11. looks like the Linear A syllabogram PA3 (PAI), but is indecipherable. 12 appears to be somewhat like the Linear A vowel E, and it may be a boar’s tusk helmet, but there is no way of telling for certain.
Translation of Linear B tablet Knossos KN 854 K j 11 by Rita Roberts:
Rita Roberts’ translation of Linear B tablet KN 342 J e 01 concerning olive oil:
New interpretation of Linear A tablet ZA 20 (Zakros):
This new interpretation of Linear A tablet ZA 20 (Zakros) varies only slightly from my original one. I interpret the syllabogram on line 0 (the indecipherable line) as being NI, since the bottom of NI is a vertical line. And figs often figure prominently in Linear A tablets. The actual reading of the text is not quite clear, since there are at least 2 damaged syllabograms following MI on line 1. It is impossible to determine with any accuracy what the actual units of measurement are for anything on this tablet, although of course the units of chaff from wheat would have to be considerably less than the total units of wheat. So 1 unit + 6 units of wheat probably refers to something like bushels (a mere approximation), from which we would not get all that much chaff… which may explain the presence of the container, supposedly containing 3 smallish units of chaff. But why would anyone want to place chaff in a container? So we see problems with the decipherment.
Common pulse crops in the late Neolithic, Early, Middle and Late Bronze Ages Mediterranean and Near East, including Minoan Crete: Go to: http://www.fao.org/pulses-2016/news/news-detail/en/c/429320/ Faba beans (Vicia Faba) fa/ba ancient Greek Faba beans are among the world’s most ancient crops. During the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron ages, they played an important role in spreading agriculture throughout Eurasia and North Africa, along with other pulses and cereals. They can be found in numerous archaeological deposits. Peas (Pisum sativum) Peas also belong to one of the oldest domesticated crops. Archaeological evidence dates its existence back to 10 000 BC to the Near East and Central Asia. During the Stone and Bronze ages they spread to Europe and the Mediterranean and then to India in 200 BC. Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) Chickpeas originated in an area located between the southeast of Turkey and the western part of the Fertile Crescent. They were domesticated around 7 000 BC. This is the reason why chickpeas are culturally bound to the Middle East and Asia, and why they are a basic constituent of Asian diets. Lentils (Lens culinaris) Lentils were also domesticated in the Fertile Crescent – in what today is Iraq. As far back as 8 500-6 000 BC, archaeological evidence confirms the existence of lentils. Just like chickpeas, lentils are a basic constituent of Asian diets. Cow peas (Vigna unguiculata) Cow peas, as we know them today, originated in Sub Saharan Africa but the origin of wild varieties has been traced to southern Africa. Although today cowpeas are cultivated throughout the world, they are still an important component of traditional intercropping systems in the dry savannahs of Sub-Saharan Africa due to their high shade tolerance. Ever since their domestication, they have been culturally bound to this region. Lupine (Lupinus) Lupinus is regarded as one of the most diverse genus in the legumes family. It is crucial for its very high protein content – up to 45%- and for its versatility, ranging from human nutrition to forage. The two main varieties domesticated by ancient civilizations are part of two geographically isolated groups: White Lupine, (Lupinus albus) of the Old World group and Andean Lupine (Lupinus mutabilis) of the New World group. AND also download this highly relevant document: thesis_hum_1997_riley_frank_richard.pdf The Role of the Traditional Mediterranean Diet in the Development of Minoan Crete: In this extremely detailed analysis of grain and pulse crops vetch, bitter vetch, lentils, chick peas, peas, grass peas, Celtic beans are all mentioned, with a great deal of information on how they were grown and how they were fully incorporated into the Minoan diet. Since we have already deciphered, in some cases, with complete accuracy, the types of grain crops the Minoans grew, ie. kunisu for emmer wheat and dideru for einkorn wheat, plus sara2 (sarai) for flax, among others, with the information on the most common Bronze Age pulse crops we now have in hand, we may now draw the tentative conclusion that any one of the following words, in order of frequency of use on the tablets, are very likely pulse crops: 1 minute 20 10 10 6+ = 46+ 2 pura2 (purai) 6 (with figs) 40 (with grains) (Haghia Triada only) 40 3 qanuma 20 all from Haghia Triada only... Any 3 of the above probably refer to broad beans (faba/fava) , chick peas *, lupins *, vetch * in any permuted order. and the crops they represent, permuted, could be any of the following, with the most likely candidates marked by an asterisk (*): broad beans (faba/fava) *, chick peas *, lupins *, vetch * Since four pulses are listed in English, versus only 3 in Minoan, one of the 4 is not one of the 3. But we cannot know which one. with the following pulses also possible, but less likely, candidates: bambara, cow peas, green peas, pigeon peas
Minoan Linear A poetic vocabulary (11 pages): Thematic: Agriculture/crops: adara/adaro/adaru = having to do with the measurement of grain crops ade/adu = large unit of measurement for grains, something like bales? adureza = dry unit of measurement, usually for grains akara/akaru a1kra (arch. acc.) - or - = end, border + akaru a0gro/j = field
akiro a1kairoj = not in season, unseasonable -or- a1grioj = living in the fields; uncultivated, unreclaimed
amaja a3maca= wagon arura a0rou/ra = unit of land -or- plough Cf. Linear B arura arudara a1lutra <- a1lutron = threshing instrument (arch. acc.) asesina = sowing or harvesting asadaka a1staxa (arch. acc.) <- a1staxu (Minoan nom. sing.)= ear of corn Asara2 TOP = Linear B Asaro A0sa/roj -or- may refer to Assur, hence Assyria -or- asara2 (asarai) = without flax atare a0ta=lei/ <- a0ta=lo/j = tender; delicate (of crops?) -or- a0qa/lei <- a0qa/loj = without a branch, twig; without an olive branch -or- a9dro/j = full-grown – or – a0qa/rh = groats, meal, green fodder, forage, provender Cf. kupari = galingale atiru a0te/lu <- a0te/loj = without boundaries dame/dami/daminu OM dame = a type of grain -or- da/mei = in the village data2 (datai) = olive datu = olive tree dideru = einkorn wheat Cf. Linear B didero durare = a type of grain, durum wheat? dureza/durezase = unit of dry measurement? (variation of: adureza?) ero e0llo/j = young deer, fawn etori e1tori <- e1toj = for a year itaja = unit of liquid volume for olive oil? (exact value unknown) kami ka/mi (dat./instr. sing.) <- ka/ma = (on a) unit of land Cf. Linear B ka/ma kasaru = surviving? (drought) kasitero kasite/loj = boundary of...? kikadi = cicada (cricket) kireta2 (kiretai) kri/qai = barley kiretana kriqani/aj = like barley, barley (attributive) kiro/kirisi/kiru = owed Cf. Linear B oporo = they owed kunisu = emmer wheat (derivation: Semitic kunnisu) madi = a ram? (probably, because it appears to be masculine and is used in conjunction with the ideogram for “sheep” maru/maruku/maruri mallo/j = flock of wool Cf. Linear B mali mali/ = wool meza me/za (fem. sing.) = greater, bigger Cf. Linear B mezo me/zwn me/zoj minute (sing. minuta2 – minutai) = type of grain – or – Mi/nute\ <- Mi/noste\ = and Minos mireja mhle/a = apple tree -or- mh/leia (gen. sing.) = belonging to a sheep miru mh=lon = a sheep or goat -or- mh1lon = apple, tree fruit mirutarare = sheep pen? -or- apple orchard? naka na/ka (arch. acc) <- na/koj = sheep’s fleece nea ne/a = new Cf. Linear B ne/#a = new pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi = millet -or- spelt pa3qe -or- qepa3 i.e. paiqe -or- qepai (+ ideogram for “wheat”) = a kind of grain similar to wheat paja/pajai/pajare = contracted, indentured, hired? para para\ = beside, from beside, by the side of, beyond etc. pasarija = pa=sa + rija = all-encompassing, international? pura2 = a type of grain qanuma = a type of grain qareto = lease field? Cf. Linear B onato qaqisenuti xalkei/a=senuti = with bronze craftsmanship qera2u/qera2wa = a type of grain, probably millet or spelt qeria = probably millet or spelt reza = standard unit of linear measurement rima lei=mac = garden -or- lei=mma = remnant, remains -or- lh=mma = income, receipts (dative/instrumental plural) ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase lu=matase <- lu=ma = offscourings from grain, i.e chaff sara2 (sarai)/sarara/saru = flax saro/saru/sarutu sa/ron = broom, threshing floor sato sa/ton = Hebrew unit of measurement. sedina = celery Cf. Linear B serino se/linon seikama = seika/ma = a unit of land dedicated to a/the goddess setamaru = something to do with wool/spun wool? sika shka/ (arch. acc.) <- shko/j = fold, enclosure; (sheep) pen; sacred precinct, shrine = <- zhka/zw = to pen in Cf. Linear B periqoro peri/boloj = sheep pen Sikine TOP loc. sing. of Sikinos -or- OM = a type of grain simita = mouse (arch. acc.) simito/simitu PGS = zmi/nqoj mouse sitetu See situ below situ si/tu si/tun = wheat Cf. Linear B sito si/ton suniku (common) su/noiku <- su/noikoj living together, joint inhabitant, dweller suzu su/zuc = yoked together; paired Cf. Linear B zeukesi zeu/gesi = yoked (instr. pl.) taikama taika/ma = a unit of land, something like an acre? ta2re/ta2reki sta=rei<- stai=j wheaten flour mixed into dough + tasise sta/sisei tai2si (taisi) stai=sei <- stai=j = with wheaten flour mixed into a dough (instr. pl.) teke/teki = small unit of measurement for wine @ 27 1/2 units per tereza tereza = liquid unit of measurement terikama te/leika/ma = extent of land, i.e. something like acreage, lit. land to its extent or boundary tero/teroa te/loj = end, boundary Tumitizase TOP -or- = linen Cf. Linear B rino li/non udiriki u3driki <- u3droj = with water ukare = sowing or harvesting Uminase TOP Cf. Linear B Aminiso = harbour waja #ai/a = earth, land Flowers/fruit/spices etc: adakisika a0dakissi/ka = adorned with ivory adoro a1doroj = receiving no gifts; unpaid; giving no gifts akumina a0ku/mina = without cumin? (arch. acc.) amawasi a3mai#asi = with violets asidatoi a0si/datoi = without pomegranate (dat. sing.) atade a1ttade = from father ditamana = dittany dudama = a kind of fruit = dates? (found in context with figs) ia i0a/ (n. pl.) = an arrow (sing.) & i1a (n. pl.) = violets/ija See i0a/ (n. pl.) = an arrow (sing.) & i1a (n. pl.) = violets (variation) kanaka kna/ka (arch. acc. of respect) = saffron Cf Linear B kanako kna/koj kapa/kapaqe/kapate/kapi karpa/ (arch. acc.) + karpa/te\ = fruit, and fruit, with fruit -or- kara kera/kero ke/raj = horn (ivory) -or- khr/oj = bees-wax Cf. Linear B kera kikina = some kind of fruit, quite likely grapes (from context) kireza = measurement of figs = 1 basket of figs carried on a shoulder kitai/kitei = kestai/ kestei/ = embroidered (lit.), but in context = basketry, basket(s) kupari ku/pairi (instr. sing.) <- ku/pairoj = marsh-plant used to feed horses, galingale or ginger kuruku kro/koj = crocus, saffron mera mela/j = black - or – me/la (arch. accus.) = honey merasasaa/merasasaja (very common) = something to do with honey/ honeycomb or honey drink? meto mesto/j = full, filled mireja mhle/a = apple tree -or- mh/leia (gen. sing.) = belonging to a sheep miru mh=lon = a sheep or goat -or- mh1lon = apple, tree fruit mirutarare = sheep pen? -or- apple orchard? mita mi/nqa = mint Cf. Linear B mita muru mu/ron = sweet oil extracted from plants; sweet oil; unguent; perfume Cf. Linear B musaja nira2 (nirai) -or- nita2 (nisai) OM = figs + ideogram = NI (in both Linear A & B) oteja o1steia <- o1streia = oyster pigment; oyster purple Cf. Linear B otawero o1streioj para para\ = beside, from beside, by the side of, beyond etc. patane OM = lentils? (fem. pl.) pimata PGS = pimento pita/pitaja pista/kion = pistachio-nut pitakase/pitakesi pista/kesi = with pistachio-nuts (instr. pl.) punikaso funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine) Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj = crimson ra2ri (rairi) = lily rima = lei=mac = garden -or- lei=mma = remnant, remains -or- lh=mma = income, receipts (dative/instrumental plural) rimisi See above (instr. pl.) rosa = rose rosirasiro = rosebush? sasame sasa/me = sesame Cf. Linear B sasa/ma sedina = celery Cf. Linear B serino se/linon tuma/tumei/tumi qumi/a = incense turunu qo/rnoj = throne Cf. Linear B tono qo/rnoj unana = penny royal? uro ou0=loj = entire, total. Cf. kuro ku=rwn = reaching, attaining i.e. = total waja #ai/a = earth, land Military: ia i0a/ (n. pl.) = an arrow (sing.) & i1a (n. pl.) = violets/ija See i0a/ (n. pl.) = an arrow (sing.) & i1a (n. pl.) = violets (variation) ima i9ma/c = leather strap, thong; lash of a whip ira2 i1la=i = troops, companies, squadrons kara kara/ = head Cf. Linear B kara(pi) kara/afi kipisi ci/fisi <- ci/foj = with swords (instr. pl.) kito xitw/n = chiton Cf. Linear B kito koiru koi/ru <- koi/roj = hollow (ships) koru ko/ruj = helmet Cf. Linear B koru kuro/kurotu ku=roj = supreme power, authority & ku=rwn = reaching, attaining i.e. = total Cf. Linear B tosa to/sa kuto/kutu ku/toj = shield, cuirass qaro ba=lo/j = threshold qero be/loj = arrow, dart radu r9a/bdu <- r9a/bdoj = rod, switch; spear-staff or shaft ra2ti (raiti) r9aisth/r = a hammer, crusher sama/samaro sama/ro = burial ground Cf. Linear B Sama/ra sama/ra = place name -or- monument -or- grave mound OR sa/meron = today sere -or- rese seirei/ <- seira/ = with a cord or rope (instrumental sing.) tarasa = sea Cf. Linear B tarasa qa/lassa toraka qw/rac = breastplate, cuirass = Linear B toraka toro tau/roj = bull -or- qolo/j = dome or circular vault; vaulted building zuma zw=ma girdle, belt; girded tunic Pottery/vessels: aresana a1leisana <- a1leison = an embossed cup (arch. acc.) = de/paj (Homeric) Cf. Linear B dipa/arisu a1leisu <- a1leison = embossed cup daqera = a type of vase? darida = large vase, slightly smaller than a pithos daropa = stirrup jar depa/depu de/paj de/pu (acc.?)= cup Cf. Linear B dipa di/paj & Homeric de/pa dipa3a (dipaia) di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup dipaja di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup (alternate?) ipinama/ipinamina i0pneume/na (fem. sing.) = baked (bread)
itisapuko i1tija = round + pu/coj = box-wood -or- NMOM i1tija = round + puko = tripod = round tripod Cf. puko below
kadi kadi/ (instr. sing.) <- ka/doj = with a jar or vessel for water or wine kadusi ka/dusi <= ka/doj = with buckets or pails (instr. pl.) kairo kairo/j = due measure kaki/kaku xalku/ <- xalko/j = copper, bronze kakunete = bronze alloy - or – crafted in bronze karopa2 (karopai) = kylix with 2 handles-or- ka/rdoph = wooden vessel/vase kataro ka/nqa=roj = scarab (Egyptian) + drinking cup kera/kero ke/raj = horn (ivory) -or- khr/oj = bees-wax Cf. Linear B kera meto mesto/j = full, filled meza me/za (fem. sing.) = greater, bigger Cf. Linear B mezo me/zwn me/zoj nere = larger amphora size (fem. plural) posa po/sa= (arch. acc.) <- poi/si=j = drink(ing), beverage -or- po/sa <- po/soj = how great, how much, of what value? posi -or- sipo posi/ = on, upon Cf. Linear B posi -or- sipo = si/fwn = reed, straw, siphon puko= tripod Cf. Linear B pukoso pu/coj = box-wood. Apparently unrelated qapa3 (qapai) = (large) handle-less vase or amphora qapaja/qapajanai qapaja (genitive sing. of qapa3 (qapai)) qaqisenuti xalkei/a=senuti = with bronze craftsmanship qedi = a flagon (for wine) qeti (instr. sing.)/qetiradu = a very large pot, pithos Cf. Linear B PGS qeto pi/qoj supa3 (supai)/supa3ra (supaira) =small cup with handles Cf. Linear B dipa mewiyo supi/supu/supu2 = largest size pithos -or- supu/h sipu/h sipu/a i0pu/a = meal tub = suropa = some kind of vase? tisa = pottery worker/working on pottery/pottery wheel (tourney) Religious: ara a0ra/ = a prayer araju a0ra=u <- a0ra=oj = prayed for arati a0ra=ti/ <- a0ra/toj = with something unblessed Cf. makarite ― below atanate a0qa/na=te = with an immortal (instr. sing.) damate Da/mate = Damater Cf. Linear B Damate -or- da/matei = in the village dare da=lei/ <- da=lo/j = (with) a firebrand or torch/daro LIG da=lo/j = firebrand dewa -or- wide de/#a = goddess? dija/dije Di/ #a Cf. Linear B Diwija Di#i/a = priestess of Zeus dumitatira2 (dumitatirai) = left or right side of a spindle? (or verso) dura2 dou/lai = slaves (fem.) Cf. Linear B doera doe/la esija e3sti/a = hearth of a house Idamate/Idamete 0Idama/te = Mother goddess of Mount Ida Idarea 0Idar9ea = Rhea, goddess of Mount Ida ijate i0a/ter = doctor, physician Cf. Linear iyate i0a/ter iruja i0e/ruia = priestess Cf. Linear B iyereya i0e/reia jamauti i1amauti = as a means of healing <- i1ama i1amatoj = healing, remedy jarisapa = some kind of dress? Cf. Linear B sapa jasaja 0Ia=sai/a <- 0Ia=sw/ of/from the goddess of healing and health jasidara i0a=sida=la/ = healing torch/firebrand (arch. acc.) jate/jateo i0a=th/r = physician jatimane i0a=th/j mannei= = with the bread of healing mana/manapi (common) Hebrew manna= = (of spiritual food) bread from heaven, the supernatural food eaten by the Israelites in the desert maza/mazu ma=za = kneaded or unbaked bread, barley bread/cake miturea mi/toj 9Re/a= thread of a warp for Rhea narepirea narepir9e/a = Rhea, goddess of the snake/ snake goddess? pimitatira2 (pimitatirai) = right of left side of a spindle? -or- verso qajo ba/i"on = a palm branch (Kafkania pebble) ranatusu (agglutinative?) -or- r9anatusu < - r9anti/zw = to cleanse, purify rani r9a=ni/j = anything sprinkled (as in a libation); rain drop See also ratise ratise (ritise?) = la/tise <- la/taj = with drops of wine (instr. pl.) rea r9e/a = goddess, Rhea sea/sei se/a se/ei (dat. sing.) = snake goddess (from K. Bouzanis) seikama= seika/ma = a unit of land dedicated to a/the goddess taro tau=roj = bull tejai qei/ai = goddesses tuma/tumei/tumi qumi/a = incense turunu qo/rnoj = throne Cf. Linear B tono qo/rnoj wanaka = king wireu #i0eru/ <- #i0ero/j = priest Cf. Linear B iyero i0ero/j Textiles: arako a0ra/c = weaver Cf. Linear B arakateya a0laka/teiai = weavers
arakokuzu = weaver’s establishment?
datu = olive tree keda = cedar kidapa = ash wood? (a type of wood) Appears only on Linear B tablet KN 894 N v 01 kidaro kidaro ke/dron = juniper berry-or- kedri/a = oil of cedar Cf. Linear B kidaro kitanasija/kitanasijase kitanisija (gen. sing.) ki/rtanasia <- ki/rtanoj = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano ki/rtanoj tarawita = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano ki/rtanoj & timito ti/rminqoj tarina qalli/na (arch. acc.) <- qallo/j = a young shoot, twig; festive olive-branch Wine: aka -or- kaa a0ska/ (arch. acc.) <- a0sko/j = leather bag, wine skin apero a1mpeloj = a vine Cf. Linear B apero kupazu kou/fazu <- kou/fazoj = light (of wine) kuqani = a type of (fine) wine kuwa -or- waku ku/#a = girl Cf. Linear B kowa ko/#a – or – #a0sku/ <- #a0sko/j = leather bag or wineskin punikaso funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine) Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj = crimson qesizue (plural) = wine goblets? ratise (ritise?) = la/tise <- la/taj = with drops of wine (instr. pl.) unaa oi0nai/a = wine vessel, wine jug, wine jar winadu #i1nadu = vineyard Cf. Linear B winado winu #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono #oi/noj winumatari #i/numa/tari = wine dedicated to Mother Earth ONOTOP: Adunitana Akanu/Akanuzati OP A0rxa/nej = Archanes (Crete) Arenesidi Asasumaino Asasumaise Asuja Cf Linear B Asiwiya A0si/#ia Demirirema Dawa = place name Cf. LB dawo Da/#oj / Da/#on Dikate = Mount Dikte Cf. Linear B Dikatade Diktai/oj Dupu3re Cf. Linear B Dupu2razo Dupurai/zoj Ida/Idaa/Idada/Idapa3 = Mount Ida Idunesi Ikurina Inajapaqa Itinisa = female resident of Itanos? Izurinita Kana/kanatiti/kanau Kanna Kanijami Kaniamis (female name)? Ketesunata Kina Kinna Kiso Kissos Kosaiti Cf. Linear B Kutaito Ku/taistoj (not necessarily the same place) Masuja Mekidi Megi/di <- Me/gaj = the Great Mesenurutu Midemidiu Pamanuita Raja/Raju 9Rai/a = Raia Cf. Linear B Raja rea PGS r9e/a = goddess, Rhea Rujamime Rukito Seimasusaa Setoija Sewaude Sezanitao Sikira/Sikirita Sima Suria Tainaro Ta2rimarusi Tejare TOP Cf. Linear B Tejaro qei/aroj = place of the gods? Tita = Ti=ta/n Uminase Waduna Wadunimi
HT 123 (Haghia Triada) VERSO, deciphered for the first time ever:
As follows: 1. 2 shares in an enclosed plot land for 11 months, 1 scythe for sowing 2. tidata . pisa . 4 2 shares in 1 enclosed plot 3. in 1 enclosed plot *188 tupadida 4. sowing *... kadi . repu 5. paputuito harvesting to full harvest 6. kuro 20 . kiro 5 NOTES: 1. the lop-sided square with a cross in it in line 1 is an enclosed plot of land with 2 shares for the tenant farmers, which was sown 11 months ago, the tenants using a scythe for sowing. The scythe also appears in line 1, looking somewhat like a sword. 2. In line 2, the 2 shares are repeated. The words *188 and tupadata are indecipherable, although tupadida is obviously some kind of crop. 4. In line 4, the word kadi refers to an amphora (large) for the storage of the paputuito (also indecipherable, also a crop) 5. which in line 5 has been harvested to full harvest. This makes perfect sense, since the harvest occurs in the 11th. month, i.e. lunar November. This particular season, it appears to be still warm enough that month to cash in on the full harvest. This is possible in a Mediterranean climate such as in Crete. 6. In line 6, kuro references the total return for the full harvest, while kiro stands for the 5 shares owed (4 for the tenants, 1 for the landlord). This also makes sense, since 2 shares are listed on line 1, and 2 more in line 2. As for the extra share, this is apparently the tithe for the landlord.