Academia.edu THESIS The Minoan and Mycenaean Agricultural Trade and Trade Routes in the Mycenaean Empire by Rita Roberts: Click on this logo to download her thesis: We are proud to announce that Rita Roberts has fulfilled the requirements of her second year of university, and has passed with a mark of 85 %. We have awarded her 90 % for thesis, The Minoan and Mycenaean Agricultural Trade and Trade Routes in the Mycenaean Empire, which is a finely researched document I highly recommend to any and all. It deals in great detail with every conceivable aspect of Minoan and Mycenaean agricultural trade via their trade routes in the Mycenaean Empire, ca. 1600-1450 BCE. We congratulate Rita on her splendid achievement, and we look forward to her fuflling the exacting requirements of her third and final year of university which commences on July 1 2018, Canada Day. Once she has completed her third year, she will have earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in Minoan and Mycenaean studies.
Rita Roberts’ translation of Knossos tablet KN J 1 f 01, her last tablet for her second year of university:
Line 1: Deukijojo = month name + temeno = shrine. The damaged first syllabogram looks like TO. The actual word temeno = “temple” does not appear on the first line of this tablet, since it appears that the the scribe has made a scribal error, which actually happens quite often on Linear B tablets. The writing is messy, and appears to read teno, which would explain the scribal error, i.e. he missed on one syllabogram. Deukijojo could either be a month name, in which case it means “the tenth month” or more properly in this content, “of the tenth month” or it could simply be a person’s name. If it refers to the tenth month, then it follows that the entire tablet refers to this month.
Wakatanujo – or- Dukatanayo = name + newejo = “of something new” + 3 units (probably bales) of barley. Hence the line refers to 3 new units (probably bales) of barley from Wakatanujo – or- Dukatanayo
Padarejode = a place hame, which is a sanctuary = hence, olive oil from Dardare and 2 units (probably bales) of barley.
Pade = name plus olive oil and 1 unit (probably a bale) of barley
Pasiteoi = “to all gods” barley and 1 unit of olive oil
olive oil and barley for Qerasiya = goddess Artemis, with numerals absent because of right truncation.
1 unit of barley to all the gods at Aminiso = Amnisos
2 units (probably pithoi) of olive oil for the goddess Erinu. Note that Erinu references one of the Furies (Erynies) in Greek. So it would appear that the scribe tells us that there was a sacrifice to at least one of or probably all of the Furies to appease them so that crops would thrive.
Gold and olive oil and 1 cyperus plant, probably dedicated to the priestess of the winds in Line 10.
4 cyperus plans dedicated to Anemo Ijereja = to the priestess of the winds
Blank and truncated.
3 units (probably pithoi) of olive oil and 2 units of barely plus 2 cyperus trees (also probably dedicated to the priestess of the winds)
Blank and truncated.
This is the very last tablet Rita Roberts is to translate for her second year of university, and it is by far the most challenging she has ever been confronted with to date. Congratulations to Rita! She is now about to take her final examination for her second year, which is to consist of 25 questions in increasing level of difficulty, the last 5 of which are to be translations of tablets, plus her second year thesis paper, What did the Minoan agricultural sector contribute to the Mycenaean Empire? This paper must be at least 25 pages long, inclusive of the bibliography but excluding illustrations, which will add to the page length of her thesis. Since this thesis paper is much more difficult than her first year thesis, I am allotting her three months to complete it, i.e. Feb. 15 – May 15. However, she must complete the rest of the examination in just 2 weeks (Feb. 15 – March 1 2018).
In the next post, I shall re-inscribe the entire tablet in archaic Greek from the Mycenaean.
All-new decipherment of Linear A tablet HT 8 (Haghia Triada) dealing with multiple crops:
This is the first time I have attempted to decipher Linear A tablet HT 8 (Haghia Triada), and I have met with considerable success in deciphering it for the most part. It quite clearly deals with multiple crops. Some explanation is in order. On the RECTO, we find the supersyllabogram KI, which means KIRETAI, in Greek kri/qai, meaning barley of which there are 10 units, something like bushels (a mere approximation as we cannot know that the standard units of measurement for crops were either in Linear A or in Linear B). Next comes the supersyllabogram PA3 (PAI), which probably refers to pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi Old Minoan (OM) = millet -or- spelt. KARATI on line 2 is also OM and appears to correspond to Anatolian, karasa = a large jar, which makes sense in context. PA3 (PAI), which probably refers to pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi Old Minoan (OM) = millet -or- spelt is then repeated. Line 3 begins with the supersyllabogram (SSYL) TE, which means tereza, OM for the standard unit of liquid measurement, while qanuma is OM for some kind of pulse crop, any one of broad beans (faba/fava), chick peas, lentils or vetch. On line 4 we find the word SIKIRA si/kera, a sweet-fermented liquor, Cf. Linear B sikero. When we combine this word with KIRETANA kri/qania on line 5 we get SIKIRA KIRETANA, which means of course a barley-like sweet-fermented liquor, in other words, beer, probably sweetened with honey.
VERSO: SUPU2 is a pithos or alternatively sappu, which is Semitic for bowl (practically the same thing). Hence, this decipherment is sound. The SSYL KA probably refers to karasa (Anatolian), meaning a large jar, which reinforces the decipherment of SUPU2. PA3 (PAI) on line 2 again refers to millet or spelt. ZARI- continued on line 3 with – RE is unknown, but has something to do with crops, followed as it is with the symbols for harvesting shares. KAPA karpa/ is ripe crops. PAJARA on line 4 appears to mean indentured land.
All in all, this decipherment is coherent, and holds together well.
Linear A tablet PY Ub 1318a (Pylos) – millet or spelt:
This is Linear A tablet PY Ub 1318a (Pylos), which deals with millet or spelt, and mentions switches or something bent, which I take to be scythes.
The supersyllabogram KI kitina NM1 ktoi/na/ktoina/siaj probably means a border of a plot of land/territory Cf. Linear B kotona kotoina ktoi/na = plot of land. There is no way of substantiating this claim. However, it does make sense, given that it appears on all of rhe following Linear A tablets from Haghia Triada (HT), on one from Tylissos (TY) and one from Zakros (ZA):
HT 8 oo HT 9 wi HT 16 oo HT 28 oo HT 44 gr HT 50 oo (x2) HT 91 oo HT 101 oo (x2) HT 116 (x2) HT 125 oo HT 129 oo HT 140 oo (x2) TY 3 (x3) ZA 18 oo
All of these tablets except one apparently deal with olive trees, rather than olive oil. The one exception is HT 44, which deals with grain, another crop which is grown on plots of land.
4-sided Cretan pictogram bar with end shown & interpretations of pictograms:
Cretan pictograms – 15-23: crops (possibly/probably/definitely) known:
All of the Cretan pictograms from 15 to 23 definitely deal with crops, though in some cases we cannot tell for certain which ones. In other cases, the crops represented by their respective pictograms are either probably or definitely identified. 17a. & 17b. are spice containers. 19a. – 19c. are 3 variants for olives/olive oil. 22. is absolutely the ideogram for wheat. 20. (multiple variants) is saffron.
Tablet, Malia Palace MA/P Hi 02 in so-called Cretan hieroglyphs, dealing with crops and vessels (pottery):
Tablet, Malia Palace MA/P Hi 02 in so-called Cretan hieroglyphs, which are not hieroglyphs at all, but rather ideograms and logograms, is highly intriguing. Actually, this tablet is partially decipherable. The front side definitely deals with the produce of olive trees, i.e. olive oil and also with wheat crops. If anyone is in any doubt over the meaning of the logogram 5. TE, which looks exactly like the Linear A and Linear B syllabogram TE, this doubt can easily be swept away by mere comparison with the logogram/ideogram for “wheat” in several ancient scripts, some of which are hieroglyphic, such as Egyptian, others which are cuneiform and yet others which bear no relation to either hieroglyphs or cuneiform, or for that matter, with one another, as for instance, the Harrapan and Easter Island exograms.
In fact, the recurrence of an almost identical ideogram/logogram across so many ancient scripts is astonishing. It is for this reason that I am in no doubt over the interpretation of 5. TE as signifying what in the Cretan script.
Next up, we have 3a. & 3b., which I interpret, and probably correctly, as signifying “ewe” and “ram” respectively. In fact, the resemblance of 3b. to a ram’s head is uncanny. What is passingly strange is this: the ram’s head figures so prominently on the second side of the tablet, being much larger than any other ideogram/logogram on the tablet. Why is this so? There simply has to be a reason. But for the time being, I am stumped. Since 3a. & 3b. Relate to sheep, it stands to reason that 6. is another type of livestock. My money is on “pig”. 7. and 9. are both vessels, 7. probably being either a wine or water flask and 9. being a spice container, as it is strikingly similar to the Linear B ideogram for the same. 8. looks like some kind of grain crop, and so I take it to be so.
As for the rest of the ideograms/logograms, they are still indecipherable.
Translation of Linear B tablet Knossos KN 854 K j 11 by Rita Roberts:
New interpretation of Linear A tablet ZA 20 (Zakros):
This new interpretation of Linear A tablet ZA 20 (Zakros) varies only slightly from my original one. I interpret the syllabogram on line 0 (the indecipherable line) as being NI, since the bottom of NI is a vertical line. And figs often figure prominently in Linear A tablets. The actual reading of the text is not quite clear, since there are at least 2 damaged syllabograms following MI on line 1. It is impossible to determine with any accuracy what the actual units of measurement are for anything on this tablet, although of course the units of chaff from wheat would have to be considerably less than the total units of wheat. So 1 unit + 6 units of wheat probably refers to something like bushels (a mere approximation), from which we would not get all that much chaff… which may explain the presence of the container, supposedly containing 3 smallish units of chaff. But why would anyone want to place chaff in a container? So we see problems with the decipherment.
Minoan Linear A poetic vocabulary (11 pages): Thematic: Agriculture/crops: adara/adaro/adaru = having to do with the measurement of grain crops ade/adu = large unit of measurement for grains, something like bales? adureza = dry unit of measurement, usually for grains akara/akaru a1kra (arch. acc.) - or - = end, border + akaru a0gro/j = field
akiro a1kairoj = not in season, unseasonable -or- a1grioj = living in the fields; uncultivated, unreclaimed
amaja a3maca= wagon arura a0rou/ra = unit of land -or- plough Cf. Linear B arura arudara a1lutra <- a1lutron = threshing instrument (arch. acc.) asesina = sowing or harvesting asadaka a1staxa (arch. acc.) <- a1staxu (Minoan nom. sing.)= ear of corn Asara2 TOP = Linear B Asaro A0sa/roj -or- may refer to Assur, hence Assyria -or- asara2 (asarai) = without flax atare a0ta=lei/ <- a0ta=lo/j = tender; delicate (of crops?) -or- a0qa/lei <- a0qa/loj = without a branch, twig; without an olive branch -or- a9dro/j = full-grown – or – a0qa/rh = groats, meal, green fodder, forage, provender Cf. kupari = galingale atiru a0te/lu <- a0te/loj = without boundaries dame/dami/daminu OM dame = a type of grain -or- da/mei = in the village data2 (datai) = olive datu = olive tree dideru = einkorn wheat Cf. Linear B didero durare = a type of grain, durum wheat? dureza/durezase = unit of dry measurement? (variation of: adureza?) ero e0llo/j = young deer, fawn etori e1tori <- e1toj = for a year itaja = unit of liquid volume for olive oil? (exact value unknown) kami ka/mi (dat./instr. sing.) <- ka/ma = (on a) unit of land Cf. Linear B ka/ma kasaru = surviving? (drought) kasitero kasite/loj = boundary of...? kikadi = cicada (cricket) kireta2 (kiretai) kri/qai = barley kiretana kriqani/aj = like barley, barley (attributive) kiro/kirisi/kiru = owed Cf. Linear B oporo = they owed kunisu = emmer wheat (derivation: Semitic kunnisu) madi = a ram? (probably, because it appears to be masculine and is used in conjunction with the ideogram for “sheep” maru/maruku/maruri mallo/j = flock of wool Cf. Linear B mali mali/ = wool meza me/za (fem. sing.) = greater, bigger Cf. Linear B mezo me/zwn me/zoj minute (sing. minuta2 – minutai) = type of grain – or – Mi/nute\ <- Mi/noste\ = and Minos mireja mhle/a = apple tree -or- mh/leia (gen. sing.) = belonging to a sheep miru mh=lon = a sheep or goat -or- mh1lon = apple, tree fruit mirutarare = sheep pen? -or- apple orchard? naka na/ka (arch. acc) <- na/koj = sheep’s fleece nea ne/a = new Cf. Linear B ne/#a = new pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi = millet -or- spelt pa3qe -or- qepa3 i.e. paiqe -or- qepai (+ ideogram for “wheat”) = a kind of grain similar to wheat paja/pajai/pajare = contracted, indentured, hired? para para\ = beside, from beside, by the side of, beyond etc. pasarija = pa=sa + rija = all-encompassing, international? pura2 = a type of grain qanuma = a type of grain qareto = lease field? Cf. Linear B onato qaqisenuti xalkei/a=senuti = with bronze craftsmanship qera2u/qera2wa = a type of grain, probably millet or spelt qeria = probably millet or spelt reza = standard unit of linear measurement rima lei=mac = garden -or- lei=mma = remnant, remains -or- lh=mma = income, receipts (dative/instrumental plural) ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase lu=matase <- lu=ma = offscourings from grain, i.e chaff sara2 (sarai)/sarara/saru = flax saro/saru/sarutu sa/ron = broom, threshing floor sato sa/ton = Hebrew unit of measurement. sedina = celery Cf. Linear B serino se/linon seikama = seika/ma = a unit of land dedicated to a/the goddess setamaru = something to do with wool/spun wool? sika shka/ (arch. acc.) <- shko/j = fold, enclosure; (sheep) pen; sacred precinct, shrine = <- zhka/zw = to pen in Cf. Linear B periqoro peri/boloj = sheep pen Sikine TOP loc. sing. of Sikinos -or- OM = a type of grain simita = mouse (arch. acc.) simito/simitu PGS = zmi/nqoj mouse sitetu See situ below situ si/tu si/tun = wheat Cf. Linear B sito si/ton suniku (common) su/noiku <- su/noikoj living together, joint inhabitant, dweller suzu su/zuc = yoked together; paired Cf. Linear B zeukesi zeu/gesi = yoked (instr. pl.) taikama taika/ma = a unit of land, something like an acre? ta2re/ta2reki sta=rei<- stai=j wheaten flour mixed into dough + tasise sta/sisei tai2si (taisi) stai=sei <- stai=j = with wheaten flour mixed into a dough (instr. pl.) teke/teki = small unit of measurement for wine @ 27 1/2 units per tereza tereza = liquid unit of measurement terikama te/leika/ma = extent of land, i.e. something like acreage, lit. land to its extent or boundary tero/teroa te/loj = end, boundary Tumitizase TOP -or- = linen Cf. Linear B rino li/non udiriki u3driki <- u3droj = with water ukare = sowing or harvesting Uminase TOP Cf. Linear B Aminiso = harbour waja #ai/a = earth, land Flowers/fruit/spices etc: adakisika a0dakissi/ka = adorned with ivory adoro a1doroj = receiving no gifts; unpaid; giving no gifts akumina a0ku/mina = without cumin? (arch. acc.) amawasi a3mai#asi = with violets asidatoi a0si/datoi = without pomegranate (dat. sing.) atade a1ttade = from father ditamana = dittany dudama = a kind of fruit = dates? (found in context with figs) ia i0a/ (n. pl.) = an arrow (sing.) & i1a (n. pl.) = violets/ija See i0a/ (n. pl.) = an arrow (sing.) & i1a (n. pl.) = violets (variation) kanaka kna/ka (arch. acc. of respect) = saffron Cf Linear B kanako kna/koj kapa/kapaqe/kapate/kapi karpa/ (arch. acc.) + karpa/te\ = fruit, and fruit, with fruit -or- kara kera/kero ke/raj = horn (ivory) -or- khr/oj = bees-wax Cf. Linear B kera kikina = some kind of fruit, quite likely grapes (from context) kireza = measurement of figs = 1 basket of figs carried on a shoulder kitai/kitei = kestai/ kestei/ = embroidered (lit.), but in context = basketry, basket(s) kupari ku/pairi (instr. sing.) <- ku/pairoj = marsh-plant used to feed horses, galingale or ginger kuruku kro/koj = crocus, saffron mera mela/j = black - or – me/la (arch. accus.) = honey merasasaa/merasasaja (very common) = something to do with honey/ honeycomb or honey drink? meto mesto/j = full, filled mireja mhle/a = apple tree -or- mh/leia (gen. sing.) = belonging to a sheep miru mh=lon = a sheep or goat -or- mh1lon = apple, tree fruit mirutarare = sheep pen? -or- apple orchard? mita mi/nqa = mint Cf. Linear B mita muru mu/ron = sweet oil extracted from plants; sweet oil; unguent; perfume Cf. Linear B musaja nira2 (nirai) -or- nita2 (nisai) OM = figs + ideogram = NI (in both Linear A & B) oteja o1steia <- o1streia = oyster pigment; oyster purple Cf. Linear B otawero o1streioj para para\ = beside, from beside, by the side of, beyond etc. patane OM = lentils? (fem. pl.) pimata PGS = pimento pita/pitaja pista/kion = pistachio-nut pitakase/pitakesi pista/kesi = with pistachio-nuts (instr. pl.) punikaso funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine) Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj = crimson ra2ri (rairi) = lily rima = lei=mac = garden -or- lei=mma = remnant, remains -or- lh=mma = income, receipts (dative/instrumental plural) rimisi See above (instr. pl.) rosa = rose rosirasiro = rosebush? sasame sasa/me = sesame Cf. Linear B sasa/ma sedina = celery Cf. Linear B serino se/linon tuma/tumei/tumi qumi/a = incense turunu qo/rnoj = throne Cf. Linear B tono qo/rnoj unana = penny royal? uro ou0=loj = entire, total. Cf. kuro ku=rwn = reaching, attaining i.e. = total waja #ai/a = earth, land Military: ia i0a/ (n. pl.) = an arrow (sing.) & i1a (n. pl.) = violets/ija See i0a/ (n. pl.) = an arrow (sing.) & i1a (n. pl.) = violets (variation) ima i9ma/c = leather strap, thong; lash of a whip ira2 i1la=i = troops, companies, squadrons kara kara/ = head Cf. Linear B kara(pi) kara/afi kipisi ci/fisi <- ci/foj = with swords (instr. pl.) kito xitw/n = chiton Cf. Linear B kito koiru koi/ru <- koi/roj = hollow (ships) koru ko/ruj = helmet Cf. Linear B koru kuro/kurotu ku=roj = supreme power, authority & ku=rwn = reaching, attaining i.e. = total Cf. Linear B tosa to/sa kuto/kutu ku/toj = shield, cuirass qaro ba=lo/j = threshold qero be/loj = arrow, dart radu r9a/bdu <- r9a/bdoj = rod, switch; spear-staff or shaft ra2ti (raiti) r9aisth/r = a hammer, crusher sama/samaro sama/ro = burial ground Cf. Linear B Sama/ra sama/ra = place name -or- monument -or- grave mound OR sa/meron = today sere -or- rese seirei/ <- seira/ = with a cord or rope (instrumental sing.) tarasa = sea Cf. Linear B tarasa qa/lassa toraka qw/rac = breastplate, cuirass = Linear B toraka toro tau/roj = bull -or- qolo/j = dome or circular vault; vaulted building zuma zw=ma girdle, belt; girded tunic Pottery/vessels: aresana a1leisana <- a1leison = an embossed cup (arch. acc.) = de/paj (Homeric) Cf. Linear B dipa/arisu a1leisu <- a1leison = embossed cup daqera = a type of vase? darida = large vase, slightly smaller than a pithos daropa = stirrup jar depa/depu de/paj de/pu (acc.?)= cup Cf. Linear B dipa di/paj & Homeric de/pa dipa3a (dipaia) di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup dipaja di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup (alternate?) ipinama/ipinamina i0pneume/na (fem. sing.) = baked (bread)
itisapuko i1tija = round + pu/coj = box-wood -or- NMOM i1tija = round + puko = tripod = round tripod Cf. puko below
kadi kadi/ (instr. sing.) <- ka/doj = with a jar or vessel for water or wine kadusi ka/dusi <= ka/doj = with buckets or pails (instr. pl.) kairo kairo/j = due measure kaki/kaku xalku/ <- xalko/j = copper, bronze kakunete = bronze alloy - or – crafted in bronze karopa2 (karopai) = kylix with 2 handles-or- ka/rdoph = wooden vessel/vase kataro ka/nqa=roj = scarab (Egyptian) + drinking cup kera/kero ke/raj = horn (ivory) -or- khr/oj = bees-wax Cf. Linear B kera meto mesto/j = full, filled meza me/za (fem. sing.) = greater, bigger Cf. Linear B mezo me/zwn me/zoj nere = larger amphora size (fem. plural) posa po/sa= (arch. acc.) <- poi/si=j = drink(ing), beverage -or- po/sa <- po/soj = how great, how much, of what value? posi -or- sipo posi/ = on, upon Cf. Linear B posi -or- sipo = si/fwn = reed, straw, siphon puko= tripod Cf. Linear B pukoso pu/coj = box-wood. Apparently unrelated qapa3 (qapai) = (large) handle-less vase or amphora qapaja/qapajanai qapaja (genitive sing. of qapa3 (qapai)) qaqisenuti xalkei/a=senuti = with bronze craftsmanship qedi = a flagon (for wine) qeti (instr. sing.)/qetiradu = a very large pot, pithos Cf. Linear B PGS qeto pi/qoj supa3 (supai)/supa3ra (supaira) =small cup with handles Cf. Linear B dipa mewiyo supi/supu/supu2 = largest size pithos -or- supu/h sipu/h sipu/a i0pu/a = meal tub = suropa = some kind of vase? tisa = pottery worker/working on pottery/pottery wheel (tourney) Religious: ara a0ra/ = a prayer araju a0ra=u <- a0ra=oj = prayed for arati a0ra=ti/ <- a0ra/toj = with something unblessed Cf. makarite ― below atanate a0qa/na=te = with an immortal (instr. sing.) damate Da/mate = Damater Cf. Linear B Damate -or- da/matei = in the village dare da=lei/ <- da=lo/j = (with) a firebrand or torch/daro LIG da=lo/j = firebrand dewa -or- wide de/#a = goddess? dija/dije Di/ #a Cf. Linear B Diwija Di#i/a = priestess of Zeus dumitatira2 (dumitatirai) = left or right side of a spindle? (or verso) dura2 dou/lai = slaves (fem.) Cf. Linear B doera doe/la esija e3sti/a = hearth of a house Idamate/Idamete 0Idama/te = Mother goddess of Mount Ida Idarea 0Idar9ea = Rhea, goddess of Mount Ida ijate i0a/ter = doctor, physician Cf. Linear iyate i0a/ter iruja i0e/ruia = priestess Cf. Linear B iyereya i0e/reia jamauti i1amauti = as a means of healing <- i1ama i1amatoj = healing, remedy jarisapa = some kind of dress? Cf. Linear B sapa jasaja 0Ia=sai/a <- 0Ia=sw/ of/from the goddess of healing and health jasidara i0a=sida=la/ = healing torch/firebrand (arch. acc.) jate/jateo i0a=th/r = physician jatimane i0a=th/j mannei= = with the bread of healing mana/manapi (common) Hebrew manna= = (of spiritual food) bread from heaven, the supernatural food eaten by the Israelites in the desert maza/mazu ma=za = kneaded or unbaked bread, barley bread/cake miturea mi/toj 9Re/a= thread of a warp for Rhea narepirea narepir9e/a = Rhea, goddess of the snake/ snake goddess? pimitatira2 (pimitatirai) = right of left side of a spindle? -or- verso qajo ba/i"on = a palm branch (Kafkania pebble) ranatusu (agglutinative?) -or- r9anatusu < - r9anti/zw = to cleanse, purify rani r9a=ni/j = anything sprinkled (as in a libation); rain drop See also ratise ratise (ritise?) = la/tise <- la/taj = with drops of wine (instr. pl.) rea r9e/a = goddess, Rhea sea/sei se/a se/ei (dat. sing.) = snake goddess (from K. Bouzanis) seikama= seika/ma = a unit of land dedicated to a/the goddess taro tau=roj = bull tejai qei/ai = goddesses tuma/tumei/tumi qumi/a = incense turunu qo/rnoj = throne Cf. Linear B tono qo/rnoj wanaka = king wireu #i0eru/ <- #i0ero/j = priest Cf. Linear B iyero i0ero/j Textiles: arako a0ra/c = weaver Cf. Linear B arakateya a0laka/teiai = weavers
arakokuzu = weaver’s establishment?
datu = olive tree keda = cedar kidapa = ash wood? (a type of wood) Appears only on Linear B tablet KN 894 N v 01 kidaro kidaro ke/dron = juniper berry-or- kedri/a = oil of cedar Cf. Linear B kidaro kitanasija/kitanasijase kitanisija (gen. sing.) ki/rtanasia <- ki/rtanoj = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano ki/rtanoj tarawita = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano ki/rtanoj & timito ti/rminqoj tarina qalli/na (arch. acc.) <- qallo/j = a young shoot, twig; festive olive-branch Wine: aka -or- kaa a0ska/ (arch. acc.) <- a0sko/j = leather bag, wine skin apero a1mpeloj = a vine Cf. Linear B apero kupazu kou/fazu <- kou/fazoj = light (of wine) kuqani = a type of (fine) wine kuwa -or- waku ku/#a = girl Cf. Linear B kowa ko/#a – or – #a0sku/ <- #a0sko/j = leather bag or wineskin punikaso funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine) Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj = crimson qesizue (plural) = wine goblets? ratise (ritise?) = la/tise <- la/taj = with drops of wine (instr. pl.) unaa oi0nai/a = wine vessel, wine jug, wine jar winadu #i1nadu = vineyard Cf. Linear B winado winu #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono #oi/noj winumatari #i/numa/tari = wine dedicated to Mother Earth ONOTOP: Adunitana Akanu/Akanuzati OP A0rxa/nej = Archanes (Crete) Arenesidi Asasumaino Asasumaise Asuja Cf Linear B Asiwiya A0si/#ia Demirirema Dawa = place name Cf. LB dawo Da/#oj / Da/#on Dikate = Mount Dikte Cf. Linear B Dikatade Diktai/oj Dupu3re Cf. Linear B Dupu2razo Dupurai/zoj Ida/Idaa/Idada/Idapa3 = Mount Ida Idunesi Ikurina Inajapaqa Itinisa = female resident of Itanos? Izurinita Kana/kanatiti/kanau Kanna Kanijami Kaniamis (female name)? Ketesunata Kina Kinna Kiso Kissos Kosaiti Cf. Linear B Kutaito Ku/taistoj (not necessarily the same place) Masuja Mekidi Megi/di <- Me/gaj = the Great Mesenurutu Midemidiu Pamanuita Raja/Raju 9Rai/a = Raia Cf. Linear B Raja rea PGS r9e/a = goddess, Rhea Rujamime Rukito Seimasusaa Setoija Sewaude Sezanitao Sikira/Sikirita Sima Suria Tainaro Ta2rimarusi Tejare TOP Cf. Linear B Tejaro qei/aroj = place of the gods? Tita = Ti=ta/n Uminase Waduna Wadunimi
Just uploaded to academia.edu: Decipherment of Linear A tablet HT 86 Haghia Triada, a mirror image of HT 95: Linear A Tablet HT 86 (Haghia Triada) Linear A tablet HT 86 (Haghia Triada) appears to be inscribed partially in Mycenaean-derived New Minoan and partially in Old Minoan, just as is HT 95 (Haghia Triada). This is one of the most significant of all Linear A tablets, because it so closely parallels HT 95. The fact that the text of HT 86 so closely mirrors that of HT 95 lends further credence to our decipherment of both of these tablets taken together. We find approximately equal parts of Mycenaean-derived New Minoan and Old Minoan vocabulary on HT 86. Here we have the New Minoan vocabulary on HT 86: akaru, dideru (equivalent to Linear B didero), dame & minute Old Minoan vocabulary on HT 86: kunisu, saru, qara2wa (qaraiwa) & adu. We must pay special heed to the terms akaru and dideru in New Minoan, as these in turn signify " field " (archaic acc.), where all of these crops are obviously grown and didero, which is Linear A for " einkorn wheat ". As for the Old Minoan terminology, we have kunisu, which is " emmer wheat " and adu, which is a very large unit of dry measurement, probably " bales ". Astonishingly, the text as a whole admirably hangs together, all the more so when compared with that of HT 95.
Statistical incidence of various types of grains on Linear A tablets from Haghia Triada and elsewhere:
akaru = field HT 2 (20+) HT 86 X2 (20+ )
TOTAL = 40+
kireta2 (kiretai) = barley HT 85 (1) + HT 129 (33)
TOTAL = 34
kiretana = barley-like HT 2 (54+) HT 8 X 2 (5) HT 108 (1) HT 120 (60)
TOTAL = 120
dideru = einkorn wheat HT 86 X 2 (2nd. trunc.) (20) HT 95 X 2 (20)
TOTAL = 40
kunisu = emmer wheat HT 10 (0) HT 86 X 2 (40+) HT 95 X 2 (30)
TOTAL = 70+
[sara2 = flax HT 18 (10) HT 28 X 2 (21) HT 30 (0) HT 32-34 (0) HT 90 (20) HT 93 (20) HT 94 (5) HT 97 (0) HT 99 (4+) HT 100-102 (985+) HT 105 (234) HT 114 (10) HT 121 (5) HT 125 (2) HT 130 (0)
TOTAL = 1306+
+ saru (oblique case) HT 86 X 3 (41+) HT 95 X 2 (30) HT 123+124 (16 )
TOTAL = 87+
TOTAL for all references to flax = 1393]
spelt or millet
dame = spelt or millet HT 86 (20) HT 95 X2 (20) HT 120 (74)
TOTAL = 94
millet or spelt
qera2u/qera2wa = millet or spelt HT 1 (197) HT 95 X2 (17) TOTAL = 214
durare = durum wheat? Knossos KN Zc 7 (0)
TOTAL = 0
minute = a type of grain -or- “and for a month” HT 86 (20) HT 95 X2 (20) HT 106 (6+)
TOTAL = 46+
pura2 = a type of grain HT 28 (6) HT 116 (45) KN 54 (0)
TOTAL = 51
qanuma = ditto HT 116 (20) KH 88 (Khania) (10)
TOTAL = 20
standard units of measurement on all Linear A tablets:
adu HT 85 (0) HT 86 (0) HT 88 (20) HT 92 (680) HT 95 (0) HT 99 (0) HT 133 (55) (bales?)
TOTAL = 755
adureza (0) = standard unit of dry measurement, something like a bushel
dureza (7 ) = variant of the same
TOTAL = 7
kireza ( 42) = standard unit of measurement for figs, dates or grapes = 1 basket
TOTAL = 42
reza (67+ ) = standard unit of linear measurement
TOTAL = 67+
tereza (0) = standard unit of liquid measurement
© by Richard Vallance Janke 2017
Linear A tablet HT 133 (Haghia Triada) fully deciphered:
The intriguing thing about this tablet is this: apart from the word adu, which apparently means something like “bales”, the rest of the tablet contains only supersyllabograms. If indeed adu does refer to something like bales of wheat, and if te is the abbreviation for terikama, which refers to something like an acre, then the tablet makes complete sense. 55 bales per acre. A good yield.
Are Minoan and Mycenaean fractions fractions? I am not at all convinced Since Minoan and Mycenaean fractions, as estimated by Andras Zeke of the Minoan Language Blog and Prof. John G. Younger, fall as low as 1/10 and 1/32, I am not at all convinced that these are fractions at all. They are, as far as I can tell, crop shares. This makes a lot more sense, since we are dealing with farming, where crop shares have always been of paramount importance. As for units of measurement, we have no real idea what they were, since Minoan Crete and the Mycenaean Empire are so remote in history. No one can possibly determine fractions that far back in history. In fact, Prof. Younger and Andras Zeke cannot even agree on the values of the fractions... not that that argument invalidates the notion they are not fractions. That is a specious argument. However, it makes more sense to consider these as crop shares, especially in view of the fact that some of the Mycenaean symbols are so remarkably similar to their Minoan counterparts. The appearance of symbols has nothing to do with what we take them to mean. This again is an arbitrary decision, which may be right or wrong.
Linear A haiku: the sea emmer wheat raindrops: Believe it or not, I was also able to compose a haiku in Linear A, which reads as follows, Note that while the word for sea, tarasa, does not appear on any extant Linear A tablets or fragments, it does appear in the pre-Greek substratum, and may very well have existed in the Minoan vernacular.
POST 1600: On academia.edu: Minoan Linear A tablet HT 95, emmer and einkorn wheat, other grains and flax:
I have just uploaded an article on academia.edu: Minoan Linear A tablet HT 95, emmer and einkorn wheat, other grains and flax, which you can find here (Click on the banner):
I encourage you to download it and read it, as it is only 4 pages long.
HT 95 (Haghia Triada), dealing emmer and einkorn wheat, is one of the most significant of all Linear A tablets: Linear A tablet, HT 95 (Haghia Triada), which deals with various grain crops, i.e. emmer and einkorn wheat, millet and spelt, and with flax, is unquestionably the most important Linear A tablets, with the possible exception of HT 86, dealing with the same roster of grains, inscribed exclusively in Old Minoan. When I posted HT 86 (Haghia Triada) the first time round, I established that kunisu meant “emmer wheat” and dideru “einkorn wheat”, but I was not quite sure I had them in the right order. Thanks to Cyrus G. Gordon, who makes the following statement: ... Linear A ku-ni-su must mean some kind of wheat because it is followed by the WHEAT determinative. Now kunnisu is a Semitic word for “emmer wheat” so that Linear A ku-ni-su WHEAT “emmer wheat” not only adds a word to our Minoan vocabulary but it also establishes Ventris’s (sic) readings of the ku, ni and su signs. (italics mine) we now know beyond doubt that kunisu does mean emmer wheat, just as I had suspected. Consequently, since these two types of wheat appear conjointly here and very close together on HT 86, we are left to draw the conclusion that dideru means einkorn wheat. Now dideru appears 4 times on HT 86 & 95, while kunisu appears once on HT 10 & HT 79, and 4 times on HT 86 & 95, for a total of 6 times. So it pretty much goes without saying that these two grains play a significant role in the Minoan diet. This should come as no surprise to anyone familiar with Late Neolithic and Bronze Age Mediterranean and Middle Eastern diets, since these two grains were the predominant ones in all societies in these regions. This will become blatantly obvious when I publish the Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 1031 New Minoan, pre-Greek substratum and Old Minoan words sometime in July, from which I cite all the references dealing with grain crops in the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age Mediterranean and Middle Eastern diets in REFERENCES below (Note that I have italicized explicit references to major grains in each title dealing with the same). As for dame and qera2u (qeraiu), proper identification is a bit problematic, because we do not know which is which. This is why I have tagged dame with the reference , signifying it could mean either spelt or millet, and qera2u (qeraiu) with , meaning either millet or spelt (the reverse). But the problem is that we are confronted with 2 permutations here. By this we mean that dame could mean either spelt or millet or vice versa, and qera2u (qeraiu) millet or spelt or millet or vice versa. Either way, dame means one of the two, while qera2u (qeraiu) the other. But how do we know this? It just so happens that, after emmer and einkorn wheat, the next most common grains in the Bronze Age Mediterranean and Middle East were millet and spelt. So chances are good that dame and qera2 (qeraiu) each references one or the other. The reference note  with flax indicates two things, (a) first that flax is in an oblique case, probably instrumental, i.e. with flax, since the nominative is sara2 (sarai) & (b) the standard unit of measurement is probably not something a bushel, because flax is extremely light. What it is we shall never know, since after all we have no real concept of what any standard unit of measurement, dry or liquid, was either in Minoan Linear A or Mycenaean Linear B. These civilizations are so remote in the distant past that any attempt at determining standard units of measurement amounts to nothing more or less than a wild guess. Nevertheless, we find that we are able to decipher HT 95 with a reasonable degree of accuracy, and in the case of kunisu and dideru, with complete accuracy. So we can now say with confidence that these two grains have been conclusively deciphered once and for all time, thanks to Cyrus H. Gordon. © by Richard Vallance Janke 2017 REFERENCES: 1 Adu, Michael. Stay green in wheat: Comparative study of modern bread wheat and ancient wheat cultivars https://www.academia.edu/32352362/Stay_green_in_wheat_Comparative_study_of_modern_bread_wheat_and_ancient_wheat_cultivars 2 Beneš, Jaromír. Kernel Weights of Triticum, Hordeum, Avena, Secale and Panicum Species can be used for Better Estimation of Importance of Different Cereal Species in Archaeobotanical Assemblages https://www.academia.edu/31109189/Kernel_Weights_of_Triticum_Hordeum_Avena_Secale_and_Panicum_Species_can_be_used_for_Better_Estimation_of_Importance_of_Different_Cereal_Species_in_Archaeobotanical_Assemblages 3 Desheva, Gergana. Comparative Evaluation of Einkorn Accessions (Triticum monococcum L.) of Some Main Agricultural Characters https://www.academia.edu/33523050/Comparative_Evaluation_of_Einkorn_Accessions_Triticum_monococcum_L._of_Some_Main_Agricultural_Characters 4 Gordon, Cyrus H. Linguistic continuity from Minoan to Eteocretan http://smea.isma.cnr.it/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Gordon_Linguistic-Continuity-from-Minoan.pdf 5 Mosenkis, Yuriy. MINOAN GREEK FARMING IN LINEAR A https://www.academia.edu/27669709/MINOAN_GREEK_FARMING_IN_LINEAR_A_Iurii_Mosenkis 6 Mueller-Bieniek, Aldona. Plant macrofossils from the site of Tell Arbid, Northeast Syria (3rd–2nd millennium BC). Preliminary report https://www.academia.edu/31923542/Plant_macrofossils_from_the_site_of_Tell_Arbid_Northeast_Syria_3rd_2nd_millennium_BC_._Preliminary_report 7 Poupet, Pierre. Approche pédoarchéologique des espaces de production agricole à l’âge du Bronze dans les montagnes méditerranéennes (exemples des Pyrénées-Orientales et de la Haute-Corse, France) https://www.academia.edu/32748459/Approche_p%C3%A9doarch%C3%A9ologique_des_espaces_de_production_agricole_%C3%A0_l_%C3%A2ge_du_Bronze_dans_les_montagnes_m%C3%A9diterran%C3%A9ennes_exemples_des_Pyr%C3%A9n%C3%A9es-Orientales_et_de_la_Haute-Corse_France_ 8 Salamini, F. AFLP Analysis of a Collection of Tetraploid Wheats Indicates the Origin of Emmer and Hard Wheat Domestication in Southeast Turkey https://www.academia.edu/33035148/AFLP_Analysis_of_a_Collection_of_Tetraploid_Wheats_Indicates_the_Origin_of_Emmer_and_Hard_Wheat_Domestication_in_Southeast_Turkey 9 Ibid. Genetics and geography of wild cereal domestication in the near east https://www.academia.edu/33035139/Genetics_and_geography_of_wild_cereal_domestication_in_the_near_east 10 Ibid. Molecular Diversity at 18 Loci in 321 Wild and 92 Domesticate Lines Reveal No Reduction of Nucleotide Diversity during Triticum monococcum (Einkorn) Domestication: Implications for the Origin of Agriculture https://www.academia.edu/33035113/Molecular_Diversity_at_18_Loci_in_321_Wild_and_92_Domesticate_Lines_Reveal_No_Reduction_of_Nucleotide_Diversity_during_Triticum_monococcum_Einkorn_Domestication_Implications_for_the_Origin_of_Agriculture 11 Shaaf, S. Evolutionary History of Wild Barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) Analyzed Using Multilocus Sequence Data and Paleodistribution Modeling https://www.academia.edu/32892906/Evolutionary_History_of_Wild_Barley_Hordeum_vulgare_subsp._spontaneum_Analyzed_Using_Multilocus_Sequence_Data_and_Paleodistribution_Modeling 12 Stein, Gil. Isotope evidence for agricultural extensification reveals how the world's first cities were fed https://www.academia.edu/33353345/Isotope_evidence_for_agricultural_extensification_reveals_how_the_worlds_first_cities_were_fed 13 Ulanowksa, Agata. Different skills for different fibres? The use of flax and wool in textile technology of Bronze Age Greece in light of archaeological experiments. Workshop: The Competition of fibres, March 8-10, Excellence Cluster TOPOI (A-4), Textile Revolution https://www.academia.edu/31717946/Different_skills_for_different_fibres_The_use_of_flax_and_wool_in_textile_technology_of_Bronze_Age_Greece_in_light_of_archaeological_experiments._Workshop_The_Competition_of_fibres_March_8-10_Excellence_Cluster_TOPOI_A-4_Textile_Revolution_Freie_Universit%C3%A4t_Berlin_program_download_ 14 Yakar, Yak. The Nature and Extent of Neolithic Anatolia’s Contribution to the Emergence of Farming Communities in the Balkans - an Overview https://www.academia.edu/33025599/yakar_fur_festschrift_nikolov_web.pdf 15 You, Frank. The structure of wild and domesticated emmer wheat populations, gene flow between them, and the site of emmer domestication https://www.academia.edu/32014519/The_structure_of_wild_and_domesticated_emmer_wheat_populations_gene_flow_between_them_and_the_site_of_emmer_domestication 16 Zapata, Lydia. Hulled wheats in Spain: history of minor cereals https://www.academia.edu/33394959/Hulled_wheats_in_Spain_history_of_minor_cereals17 17 Ibid. Measuring grain size and assessing plant management during the EPPNB, results from Tell Qarassa (southern Syria) https://www.academia.edu/33337133/Measuring_grain_size_and_assessing_plant_management_during_the_EPPNB_results_from_Tell_Qarassa_southern_Syria_ 18 Ibid. The spread of agriculture in northern Iberia: New archaeobotanical data from El Mirón cave (Cantabria) and the open-air site of Los Cascajos (Navarra) https://www.academia.edu/32531730/The_spread_of_agriculture_in_northern_Iberia_New_archaeobotanical_data_from_El_Mir%C3%B3n_cave_Cantabria_and_the_open-air_site_of_Los_Cascajos_Navarra_
Preview of the most Complete Linear A Lexicon of 1029 words ever compiled in history soon to be published on academia.edu just uploaded: This Preview of the most Complete Linear A Lexicon of 1029 words ever compiled in history soon to be published on academia.edu.pdf is in and of itself a lengthy article (14 pages long), offering full insight into the massive extent and impact of the actual lexicon, Comprehensive Lexicon of 1029 New Minoan, pre-Greek substratum and Old Minoan words, with extensive commentaries, soon to be published on my academia.edu account (sometime in July 2017). The actual Lexicon will be at least 45 pages long, and will include all of the following elements: 1. An in-depth introduction, comparing this Lexicon, with its 1029 Linear A terms with the Linear A Reverse Lexicon of Prof. John G. Younger, containing 774 intact Linear A words. To date, Prof. Younger’ Lexicon has always been considered the de facto standard of Linear A lexicons; but it falls far short of the mark. From scanning through every last Linear A tablet on Prof. Younger’s site, Linear A texts in phonetic transcription, I discovered scores of Linear A words which he missed in his Reverse Lexicon. I have also spent the last two years ransacking the Internet for every last scrap of evidence of extant Linear A tablets, fragments, roundels, pendants and inscriptions on pottery, only to unearth even more Linear words entirely overlooked by Prof. Younger, to the extent that I uncovered a total of 1029 Linear A exograms, 225 more than he did. Thus, our Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon is 27.7 % larger than his. 2. The Lexicon itself, containing 1029 words, of which over 160 are Mycenaean-derived New Minoan, some 85 are either toponyms or eponyms, a few score fall within the pre-Greek substratum and at least 80 are Old Minoan words I have been able to decipher, more or less conclusively. As for the remainder of the Old Minoan substratum, i.e. the original pre-Greek Minoan language, I have been unable to decipher the rest of its vocabulary. But believe it or not, this factor is less of an impediment to the decipherment of Linear A than we might otherwise believe. I have been able to decipher at least 350 words out of a total of 1029, which is to say about 33 % of Linear A. 3. Each section of the final Comprehensive Lexicon, i.e. A: Mycenaean-derived New Minoan NM1 B: the pre-Greek substratum C: eponyms and toponyms D: Old Minoan vocabulary and E: ligatured logograms is accompanied by a detailed analysis and survey of its contents. 4. The final Lexicon contains a comprehensive bibliography of 84 items on every aspect I have detailed of the decipherment of Linear A as outlined in this preview.