Orlando, Florida, 12062016, worst massacre in U.S. History! I woke up this morning to see on TV that, once again, another horrific massacre has occurred in the U.S. In a gay nightclub in Orlando Florida, just this past night, 50 people were brutally massacred, and 53 more injured, some critically or seriously. This time it was a Muslim gunman with Isis sympathies. That is frightening in itself. France, Brussels, Spain, the U.K., the U.S.A., over and over and over again. Will this ever end? The answer is a flat out NO. Violent religious fundamentalists have always existed throughout history. In the USA, there was the disgusting Klu Klux Klan in the mid-twentieth century. Now it is Muslim extremists all over the world. But even worse is the fact that in the USA, regardless of a shooter’s motive, religious, hateful or otherwise, it is far too easy for anyone in the USA to obtain guns and deadly assault weapons, and that is the prime reason why such violence will NEVER end there. If anyone thinks that gun control laws, even the weakest, will ever come into effect in that country, he or she is delusional. It will NEVER happen, any more than the vicious terrorism will ever end in the Middle East. God save our souls from ourselves.
Abstract of the study, COMPOSITE BOWS IN AEGEAN BRONZE AGE WARFARE, by Spyros Bakas, Archaeological Institute of the University of Warsaw: Click on this banner to read the study: ABSTRACT: Archery played a dominant role in Bronze Age, especially in later period. The technological evolution to the composites was a significant factor that affected the Warfare in several ways. The composite was introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in the 18th century BCE. However we do not have any archaeological examples from the Aegean Bronze Age world. This brief study will try to approach the issue of the use of composite bows in the Minoan and Mycenaean Warfare attempting to include all the possible archaeological iconographical and textual evidence that could support this argument. There is a large number of smiths in Pylos tablets. These are aligned with the bureaucratic and centralized structure of the Mycenaean palatial centers. The word “to-ko-so-wo-ko”, which appears five times in the tablets, refers to the profession of the “bow-maker”. Based on the evidence from the Pylos “chariot –tablets”, we do know that this Palatial centre could field hundreds of chariots while also there is a record that there are 6010 arrows stored in this particular place. It seems more likely that the Palatial centers would need those “bow makers” mostly for military purposes rather than just for hunting. Therefore, the construction of composite bows – as weapons of the Mycenaean aristocrats – seems to be the most possible occupation of those craftsmen. Mycenaean bronze scaled corselets would have been constructed for and against the composite bows. Bronze Age cultures valued the composite bow as a highly advanced and efficient weapon, offering solutions to both mobility and firepower in conflict. It is certain that the composite bow wasn’t commonplace in Minoan and Mycenaean world. It was a prestige item with high cost owned by the elite warriors and aristocrats. The weapon was in use by the Minoans probably from the early Neopalatial period and continued to play a dominant role in Aegean battlefields till the 13 century BC following the decline of chariot archery. This study will be published in the upcoming Volume IV of the Archaeological Journal, Syndesmoi, University of Catania, Italy NOTE: We have also provided a direct link to this fascinating study by Spyros Bakas here at LBK&M and on our twitter page. Scroll down to the bottom of this page for our link to his study, and you can also see the link posted on our twitter account here:
Military Syllabograms in Mycenaean Linear B, including 2 newly deciphered: Here we find 2 illustrations of military syllabograms in Mycenaean Linear B. Just click on each one to ENLARGE it. Illustrations of a typical Double Axe, Minoan (left) & Mycenaean fresco (right): Click to ENLARGE Military Syllabograms in Mycenaean Linear B for the Axe & Double-Axe or Labrys: Click to ENLARGE It is questionable whether or not the word dapu for “labrys” is in fact of Mycenaean Greek etymology, since it is somewhat of a stretch to correlate the Linear B spelling dapu with the corresponding ancient Greek orthography labrys. This sort of thing happens often enough in Linear B, making it difficult and sometimes even impossible to interpret a small cross-section of Mycenaean Greek words as Greek words (if that is what they are). Just as there are thousands of words in ancient Greek and modern Greek of non-Greek etymology, there were many of the same in Mycenaean Greek. I need only cite two examples, both of which make perfect sense even in English, but neither of which are of Greek etymology even in Mycenaean Greek, to drive my point home. We have for instance serino for “celery”, obviously the same as the English word, when you take into account that the Mycenaean “r” = Greek & English “l”. So also with sasama for “sesame”, a word which has quite literally been unchanged, apart from minor spelling variations to account for orthographic conventions in various languages, ancient & modern, ever since its first appearance in ancient languages right on down to today in English and other Occidental languages. It may possibly be Minoan. If it can ever be established that even a few of such words in Mycenaean Greek are actually of non-Greek origin, these words might provide a clue to the possible decipherment of the Minoan language, with the proviso that they are in fact Minoan. Unless any of these words actually appear either alone or as part of attested Minoan words from the online database of extant Minoan words in the Linear A texts in phonetic transcription by Professor John G. Younger, here: we are caught in a vicious circle. Of course, neither serino nor sasama appear in this database. Around and round we go on an endless merry-go-round. Military Syllabograms in Mycenaean Linear B on Chariots and related ideograms: Click to ENLARGE More in the next post... Richard
Interdisciplinary CONFERENCE on “Thinking Symbols”, Pultusk, Poland, June 30 June 30 - July 2 2015: Click to ENLARGE the Announcement: an interdisciplinary conference on “Thinking Symbols” under the auspices of the Pultusk Academy of Humanities, Pultusk, Poland, June 30 - July 2 2015 & with the participation of speakers Mrs. Christy Emilio Ioannidou & Mr. Spyros Bakas from The Association of Historical Studies: KORYVANTES, Athens, Greece: click on their banner to visit them: Richard
Our own Page in PARTNERSHIP on Koryvantes, The Association of Historical Studies (Greece) Click here to visit our own page in our professional partnership with Koryvantes, Koryvantes, The Association of Historical Studies: Koryvantes has done an extremely professional job of designing our page on his magnificent site, and we hope we have done the same for his Association on ours, here: We URGE all of our visitors to visit Koryvantes, The Association of Historical Studies, in Greece, as often as possible, since their research into ancient Greek warfare and weaponry is of the very highest order. Koryvantes discusses Greek warfare and weaponry from all historical eras, right down from the Mycenaean to the Byzantine, accompanied b magnificent illustrations of Greek warriors and weapons. His site is a must see! Koryvantes is a MAJOR contributor and attendee at numerous International Conferences and Meetings all over Europe! Richard