Rule 11: Conversion of Linear B KA KE KI KO KU to the ancient Greek alphabet:
Translation of Linear B tablet, KN 586 Rm 11, Knossos, by Rita Roberts: This is far from being a straightforward tablet to decipher. It presents at least 3 difficulties: 1. the presence of the relatively rare logogram RIYO (see the tablet above) in the putative personal name ARIYOA. 2. the presence of digamma (#) twice in the name on line 2, which could be either the putative personal name, KOWOWEYA or RUWOWEYA, depending on how one is able to decipher the first left-truncated syllabogram on that line, which could be either KO or RU. 3. the presence of what appears to be the rare syllabogram JU at the end of the second line, but we cannot even be sure of that. The tablet is damaged enough to raise the questions in 2. and 3. above.
Just uploaded to academia.edu = Exhaustive Linear A lexicon of 1030 New Minoan and Old Minoan words, with extensive sectional commentaries.pdf What with its 1030 entries of New Minoan (NM1), Pre-Greek substratum and Old Minoan terms, this is the most exhaustive Linear A Lexicon ever published in history, exceeding Prof. John G. Younger’s (at 774 intact words) by 226, with the emphasis squarely on intact exograms (words). Every possible origin of Linear A words is investigated, with extensive sectional commentaries. This lexicon, 65 pp. long, includes 4 appendices and a bibliography of 108 items. You will not want to miss out on reading this paper, representing one of the most significant historical breakthroughs in the decipherment of the Linear syllabary. If you are a member of academia.edu, please download it, and read it at your leisure. If you are not already a member of academia.edu, you can sign up for free, and then download it. My recent research into (Minoan) Linear A has meant that I have been catapulted from the top 5 % to the top 0.1 % of users on academia.edu in the past three weeks, here:
The Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 1030 New Minoan, pre-Greek substratum and Old Minoan vocabulary, with extensive commentaries, is now in its pre-publication phase:
Commentary by one of my visitors at academia.edu on the enormous potential impact of my Linear A Lexicon of 1031 words, even from the Preview online:
Et je cite Alexandre Solcà de l’Université de Genève
Oui, votre lexique, j’en suis convaincu, est un travail exceptionnel et sera une source importante de comparaisons pour établir le contenu des mots utilisés.
And I quote Alexandre Solcà of the Université de Genève:
Yes, I am convinced that your lexicon is an exceptional study and that it will be a major source of research founded on comparisons (with Linear B) to establish the context of (Linear A) words in use.
Preview of the most Complete Linear A Lexicon of 1029 words ever compiled in history soon to be published on academia.edu just uploaded: This Preview of the most Complete Linear A Lexicon of 1029 words ever compiled in history soon to be published on academia.edu.pdf is in and of itself a lengthy article (14 pages long), offering full insight into the massive extent and impact of the actual lexicon, Comprehensive Lexicon of 1029 New Minoan, pre-Greek substratum and Old Minoan words, with extensive commentaries, soon to be published on my academia.edu account (sometime in July 2017). The actual Lexicon will be at least 45 pages long, and will include all of the following elements: 1. An in-depth introduction, comparing this Lexicon, with its 1029 Linear A terms with the Linear A Reverse Lexicon of Prof. John G. Younger, containing 774 intact Linear A words. To date, Prof. Younger’ Lexicon has always been considered the de facto standard of Linear A lexicons; but it falls far short of the mark. From scanning through every last Linear A tablet on Prof. Younger’s site, Linear A texts in phonetic transcription, I discovered scores of Linear A words which he missed in his Reverse Lexicon. I have also spent the last two years ransacking the Internet for every last scrap of evidence of extant Linear A tablets, fragments, roundels, pendants and inscriptions on pottery, only to unearth even more Linear words entirely overlooked by Prof. Younger, to the extent that I uncovered a total of 1029 Linear A exograms, 225 more than he did. Thus, our Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon is 27.7 % larger than his. 2. The Lexicon itself, containing 1029 words, of which over 160 are Mycenaean-derived New Minoan, some 85 are either toponyms or eponyms, a few score fall within the pre-Greek substratum and at least 80 are Old Minoan words I have been able to decipher, more or less conclusively. As for the remainder of the Old Minoan substratum, i.e. the original pre-Greek Minoan language, I have been unable to decipher the rest of its vocabulary. But believe it or not, this factor is less of an impediment to the decipherment of Linear A than we might otherwise believe. I have been able to decipher at least 350 words out of a total of 1029, which is to say about 33 % of Linear A. 3. Each section of the final Comprehensive Lexicon, i.e. A: Mycenaean-derived New Minoan NM1 B: the pre-Greek substratum C: eponyms and toponyms D: Old Minoan vocabulary and E: ligatured logograms is accompanied by a detailed analysis and survey of its contents. 4. The final Lexicon contains a comprehensive bibliography of 84 items on every aspect I have detailed of the decipherment of Linear A as outlined in this preview.
After 117 years, the Linear A vocabulary for 3 major grains (bran, wheat, barley) and for flax is conclusively deciphered:
Although decipherment of Linear A vocabulary for the primary Minoan grains has seemed beyond reach for the past 117 years, I believe that I may have actually cracked the vocabulary for at least 3 major Minoan grain crops, kireta2 (kiretai)/kiretana (attributive) = “barley”, dideru = “einkorn wheat”, kunisu = “emmer wheat” and for sara2 (sarai) = “flax”, while concurrently tackling 3 more grain crops, rumata(se), pa3ni (paini)/pa3nina (painina) (attributive), which I may or may not have managed to accurately identify. More on this below.
How did I manage to accomplish this feat? My first breakthrough came with the code-breaker, Linear A tablet HT 114 (Haghia Triada), on which appears the word kireta2 (kiretai). It just so happens that this is a match with the ancient Greek word, kritha(i) for “barley”, here Latinized:
Armed with this invaluable information, I then devised a procedure to extract the names of the other 2 major grains, dideru (Linear B equivalent, didero), and kunisu and for sara2 (sarai) from all of the Haghia Triada tablets. I selected the tablets from Haghia Triada because they mention grains far more often than any other extant Linear A tablets do, regardless of provenance, with the sole exception of Zakros ZA 20, which is a very close match with the many Linear A tablets from Haghia Triada dealing with grains.
The procedure I have adopted is tagged cross-comparative extrapolation (CCE). I scanned every last word related to grain on every last Linear A tablet from Haghia Triada, HT 1 – HT 154K on Prof. John G. Younger’s Linear A texts in phonetic transcription HT (Haghia Triada) for the recurrence and numerical frequency of each of these words. It strikes me as very odd that no one in the past 117 years since the first discovery of Linear A tablets at Knossos has ever thought of this or a similar cross-comparative procedure. While it is practically useless to try and extrapolate the meaning of each and every grain merely by examining them in context on any single Linear A tablet, regardless of provenance, because even in single tablet context, and even in the presence of other words apparently describing other type(s) of grain, we get absolutely nowhere, the outcome from cross-correlating every last one of these words on every last tablet from Haghia Triada paints an entirely different picture, a picture which is both comprehensive and all-embracing. Clear and unambiguous patterns emerge for each and every word, including the total incidence of all statistics for them all. The result is astonishing. The table below makes this transparently clear:
We see right off the top that all of the Haghia put together mention akaru, which means “field”, the equivalent of Linear B akoro, no fewer than 20 times! Additionally, the generic word for “wheat”, situ, corresponding to Linear B sito, surfaces 5 times. But this is just the tip of the proverbial iceberg. Cross-comparative extrapolation of the next 4 grains has proven to be much more fruitful. The first of these is of course kireta2 (kiretai) ⁄ kiretana (attributive) for “barley”, which appears 149 times (!) on all of the Linear A tablets from Haghia Triada. I was definitely on to something big.
But the preliminary step I needed to take, before I actually attempted to identify the next 2 most common grains cultivated in the pre-Mycenaean and Mycenaean Minoan era, was to conduct a Google search on the 2 most common grains after barley grown in Minoan Crete. These are einkorn and emmer respectively. Returning to my cross-comparative extrapolative scan, I discovered the words dideru and kunisu recurring 40 times each. It just so happens that one previous researcher (whose name unfortunately escapes me for the time being, but whom I shall fully acknowledge when I publish my summary data on academia.edu) has accurately identified both of these types of wheat. As can be seen from the table above, these are dideru for “einkorn” and kunisu for “emmer” wheat respectively.
Moving on, fully realizing that sara2 (sarai) runs rampant on the Haghia Triada Linear A tablets, I discovered that this word recurs no less than 1321 times. Astonishing! But what does it mean? The answer was not long coming. The next most common crop the Minoans cultivated was flax, for the production of linen. Flax is not a grain, but is derived from flax flowers and seeds. This fully explains why sara2 (sarai) recurs with such astonishing frequency. Unlike the aforementioned grains, which would have been grown on a relatively restricted number of plots, in this case not exceeding 4o each, the number of flax flowers required to produce a sufficient flax harvest would have had to be very high… hence 1321. These stunning frescoes illustrate a male Minoan flax flower and a female flax seed gatherer:
Even from these 2 frescoes, we can easily see that the flax gatherers were kept busy picking what was required, a large flax crop, in this case running to 1321 flax seeds and flowers. No surprise here.
As a result of my exhaustive cross-comparative extrapolation of the first four Minoan crops, I have been able to define 3 of them for certain as grains, kireta2 (kiretai), dideru and kunisu, and one of them, sara2 (sarai) as flax. It is practically certain that all 4 definitions are correct. Hence, I have managed to isolate for the first time in 117 years the actual names of 4 major Minoan crops, barley, einkorn wheat, emmer wheat and flax.
However, when it comes to the next 5 crops, we run up against inescapable semiotic problems. What does each of these signifiers signify? There is no easy answer. On the other hand, I would have been remiss were I not to make a stab at extrapolating the names of these crops as well. It just so happens that the next most common grains after barley, einkorn and emmer cultivated by the Minoans were millet and spelt. And the next two words I extrapolated were rumata(se) and pa3ni (paini)/pa3nina/painina (attributive). But if one of them appears to be millet, the other is spelt, or vice versa. That is the conundrum. But the problem is compounded by the mystifying cumulative total statistics for each of these words, 1039 for rumata(se) and 1021 for pa3ni (paini)/pa3nina/painina (attributive). Why on earth are there so many recurrences of these 2 crops, when there are only 40 instances of dideru and kunisu? It does not seem to make any sense at all. Yet there is a possible explanation. While dideru and kunisu reference einkorn and emmer crops as crops per se, it would appear that rumata(se) and pa3ni (paini)/pa3nina/painina (attributive) refer to the seeds derived from the crops. It is the only way out of this impasse. However, it is not necessarily a satisfying answer, and so I have to reserve judgement on these definitions, which are interchangeable at any rate.
Next we have the ligatured logograms dare and kasaru, either of which might refer to the next most common crops, durum and lentils. But there is no way for us to corroborate this conclusion with any certainty. The verdict is out. Finally, the last word, kuzuni, might refer to 2 other, less common Minoan crops, either sesame or vetch for fodder. But once again, which one is which? Your guess is as good as mine.
Nevertheless, one thing is certain. Every last one of these words identifies a Minoan crop. While most of them are grains, three of them are certainly not. One of them is clearly flax (sara2/sarai) The other two may or may not be lentils or sesame. But they probably are one or the other, if they are not on the other hand durum or vetch. In short, there several permutations and combinations for the last 5. Yet the circumstantial evidence for the first 4 appears quite solid enough to justify the definitions we have assigned, barley, einkorn, emmer and flax. So at least this constitutes a major breakthrough in the identification of these 4 for the first time in 117 years.
I shall eventually be publishing a much more comprehensive draft paper on this very subject on my academia.edu account, either this summer or autumn. I shall keep you posted.
Did the archaic nominative and/or genitive singular feminine ending in ja/ya in Mycenaean Greek derive from the Minoan language? In the glossary below of: A: masculine Mycenaean Linear B words ending in jo B: feminine Mycenaean Linear B words ending in ja C: Minoan Linear A words ending in ja These are the keys: nom. = nominative gen. = genitive All Linear B entries are drawn Latinized as is from Chris Tselentis’ Linear A Lexicon. A: Most Linear B nouns in jo are nominative: A-da-ra-ti-jo Adrastios nom. ai-ki-a2-ri-jo aigihalios = coastal, of the coast gen. a-ka-ta-jo Aktaios nom. a-ke-re-wi-jo Agrevios nom. akorajo= used for communal purposes + for the marketplace gen. a-mi-ni-si-jo Amnisos nom. a-pi-no-e-wi-jo ethnic name of Amphinoevioi gen. arejo = areios (divine epithet)nom. a-te-mi-ti-jo = Artemitios nom. da-ja-ro = Daiaros nom. da-mi-ni-jo = Damnios nom. da-ta-ja-ro = Dataiaros nom. da-wi-jo = ethnic name of Davios gen. de-u-ka-ri-jo = Deukalion nom. di-ka-ta-jo = Diktaios Cf. Linear A nom. di-u-jo + diwijo = belonging to Zeus gen. du-ni-jo = Dynios nom. dwo-jo = of two gen. e-to-ni-jo = etonion = free-hold nom. e-wi-ta-jo = ethnic name of Evitaios nom. kakijo = made of copper gen ku-te-se-jo = kyteseios = made from ebony gen. B: Most Linear words in ja are nominative: a-ko-ra-ja= used for communal purposes + for the marketplace gen. a-mo-te-wi-ja armothevia = description of a pot (gen. sing.?)gen. a-ne-moi-ere-ja = priestess of the winds nom. a-ni-ja = ania = reins (neut. pl.) nom. a-pa-ta-wa-ja = ethnic name of Aptarfaia nom. a-ra-ka-te-ja = alakateiai = weavers nom. a-ra-ru-ja = ararya = bound, equipped nom. a-re-ja = areia (divine epithet) nom. a-si-ja-ti-ja = Asiatiai nom. a-si-wi-ja = Asivia nom. a-te-re-wi-ja = Atreivia nom. da-wi-ja = ethnic name of Davia gen. de-di-ku-ja = dedikyia = being apprenticed adjectival di-pi-si-ja = ethnic name of Dipsia gen. di-u-ja = diyia = priestess of the god Zeus nom. e-qe-si-ja = related to a follower gen. e-ru-mi-ni-ja = elymniai = roof beams nom. e-sa-re-wi-ja = Esalevia nom. e-to-ki-ja = entoihia = fittings for insertion in walls nom. e-wi-ri-pi-ja = ethnic name of Evripia gen. i-je-re-ja = priestess nom. i-ni-ja = personal name = Inia nomm. i-pe-me-de-ja = personal name =Iphemedeia nom. ka-da-mi-ja = somee product related to garden cress nom. ka-ki-ja/ka-ke-ja = made of copper = khalkia gen. ka-pi-ni-ja = kapnia = chimney nom. ke-ra-me-ja = personal name = Kerameia nom. ke-ro-si-ja = geronsia = council of elders nom. + gen. ke-se-ne-wi-ja = xenwia adjectival ko-ki-re-ja = kolhireia = shell=shaped, spiral adjectival ko-no-si-ja = Knosia = ethnic name of Knossos gen. nu-wa-i-ja = numfaia = kind of textile of water-lily colour nom. + gen. pa-ta-ja = paltaia = arrow nom. po-si-da-e-ja = Posidaeia nom. pu-ka-ta-ri-ja = type of cloth nom. pu2-te-ri-ja = phuteria = planted, cultivated adjectival qe-ra-si-ja = Kerasia (name of goddess) nom. ra-e-ja = laheia = made of stone gen. ra-ja = Raia nom. ri-ne-ja = lineiai = flax workers nom. ro-u-si-je-wi-ja = Lousieveia = originating in/from Lousos gen. se-to-i-ja = Setoia nom. si-to-po-ti-ni-ja= sitopotnia = goddess of grain nom. + gen. te-o-po-ri-ja = Theophoria = religious feast nom. ti-ri-ja= tria = three nom. we-a-re-ja = vealeia = made of glass adjectival + gen. C: what are all the Minoan Linear A words below ending in ja supposed to represent? Are all or even some of them either nouns or adjectives? Just because they are in Mycenaean Linear B does not constitute proof that they are in Linear A. Nevertheless, they could be. NOTE that it is highly unusual, if not inexplicable, for there to be 57 words with the ultimate ja in Linear A, but none whatsoever ending in jo. This leads me to believe that it is extremely risky to assume that all of these Minoan words with ultimate ja are either nominative or genitive feminine singular. Just because they are in Mycenaean Linear B does not at all necessarily imply that they are so in Linear A. That would be jumping to conclusions. Nevertheless, there may be a case for assuming that Minoan Linear A words with ultimate ja may possibly be either nominative or genitive feminine singular, in which case it would appear that the Mycenaean nominative or genitive feminine singular words with the ultimate ja may possibly be derived from their Minoan precedents. But there is no way of proving this. C: 57/988 Minoan Linear A words with the ultimate ja: amaja aseja asuja dija Cf. LB di-u-ja = diyia = priestess of the god Zeus duja esija ija iruja itaja jadireja 10 jasaja jatoja kija kiraja koja kuja kupa3rija * kupaja masaja (of larger? L&S 426) masuja 20 mireja (belonging to a sheep? L&S 443) musajanemaruja namarasasaja nenaarasaja nemaruja nenaarasaja nukisikija * oteja pa3kija paja 30 pasarija * pija piwaja qapaja qeja radasija * raja rasasaja redamija * reduja 40 reja saja/sajea sejarapaja sidija * sija sudaja suja Sukirteija tija tikuja 50 tiraduja tuimaja Tukidija Tunija waja (land) wija zanwaija 57 These 57 Minoan Linear A words may be either: 1 the primordial nominative singular feminine OR 2 the primordial genitive singular feminine OR 3 neither The last scenario is just as probable as the first two.
Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 988 words, with 214 more entries than in John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon: This lexicon comprises all of the intact words in John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon (which is far from comprehensive) plus every last intact word on every single tablet at his site, wherever any of the latter are not found in the former, along with additional Linear vocabulary which I have found on my own. By my count, there are 988 words, 214 more than in Prof. John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon, which has 774 entries, not counting numeric syllabograms, of which no one knows the phonetic values at any rate + long strings + broken series of syllabograms, though I may have made the occasional error in addition, since I had to subtract some repetitive words and add others from the tablets, which are not in the Reverse Linear A Lexicon. Words which are apparent variants of one another are listed under one entry, e.g. daka/daki/daku/dakuna dakusene(ti) japa/japadi/japaku kira/kiro/kirisi/kiru maru/maruku/maruri merasasaa/merasasaja nesa/nesaki/nesakimi piku/pikui/pikuzu reda/redamija/redana/redasi saro/saru/sarutu tami/tamia/tamisi zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea The following entries have been deliberately omitted: 1 Words containing any syllabograms which are either partially or wholly numeric, since we do not know what the phonetic values of these syllabograms are, 2 Broken series of syllabograms & 3 Strings of syllabograms > than 15 characters. This is the raw Lexicon, without definitions. Definitions of Old Minoan (OM), pre-Greek substratum (PGS) and Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM) terms will soon be published in sub-Lexicons pursuant to this Lexicon on my academia.edu account. adai adakisika adara/adaro/adaru ade/adu Adunitana adureza aduza ajesa aju Akanu/Akanuzati = Archanes (Crete) = 10 aka akaru aki/akii = garlic akipiete(ne?) akumina ama amaja amawasi amidao/amidau amita = 20 ana ananusijase anatu anau anepiti aparane apaki apero api ara = 30 araju arako aranare/aranarai (sing.) arati aratiatu aratu arauda aredai Arenesidi aresana = 40 ari/arinita arisu arokaku arote aru/arudara aruma aruqaro arura asadaka asamune = 50 asara2 asasumaise ase/asi aseja asidatoi asijaka asikira asisupoa asona asuja = 60 Asupuwa atade atanate atare ati atika atiru atu aurete awapi = 70 azura daa dadai/dadana dadipatu dadumata dadumina/dadumine dai/daina daipita dajute daka/daki/daku/dakuna = 80 dakusene(ti) damate Cf. Linear B damate dame/dami/daminu danasi danekuti daqaqa daqera dare darida daropa = 90 darunete daserate dasi datapa datara/datare data2 datu dawa (Haghia Triada) CF LB dawo daweda dea = 100 deauwase dedi dejuku demirirema depa/depu deripa detaa dide/didi dideru didikase/didikaze = 110 dii dija/dije dika Dikate = Mount Dikte dikime dikise dima dimaru dimedu dinaro = 120 dinau dipa3a dipaja diqise dirasa diredina dirina diru disa disipita = 130 ditajaru ditamana = dittany du/dua/duja dumaina dumedi dumitatira2 (dumitatirai) dunawi dupa3na dupu3re dura2 = 140 durare duratiqe dureza/durezase dusi/dusini dusima dusu duti duwi duzu edamisa = 150 edu eka epa3 ero esija etanasu etori ezusiqe ia Ida/Idaa/Idada/Idapa3 = Mount Ida = 160 Idamate/idamete Idarea idunesi iduti ija ijadi ijapame ijate ika Ikesedesute = 170 Ikurina ikuta ima imeti inaimadu inajapaqa ipinama ira2 iruja isari = 180 ise itaja itaki itijukui itinisa Ititikuna Izurinita jaa jadi/jadikitu = 190 jadireja jadisi jadu jadurati jai jainwaza jaiterikisu jaitose jaja jakisikinu = 200 jako/jaku/jakute jamaa jamauti jami/jamidare januti japa/japadi/japaku japametu japanidami japarajase jara2qe = 210 jara/jare/jaremi jarepu2 jarete jari/jarina/jarinu jaripa3ku jarisapa jaru/jarui jasaja jasamu jasapai = 220 jasaraanane jasasarame jasidara jasea/jasepa jasie jasumatu jata/jatai/jatapi jate/jateo jatimane jatituku+ jatituku (repeated) = 230 jatoja jawi jedi jeka jemanata jetana jua judu juerupi juka = 240 juma/jumaku juraa jureku juresa jutiqa juu ka (extremely common) kada/kadasaa kadi kadumane = 250 kadusi kae kai/kaika kairo kaji/kaju kaki/kaku kakunete kami kana/kanatiti/kanau kanajami = 260 kanaka kanita kanuti kapa/kapaqe/kapi kaporu kapusi kaqa/kaqe kara karona karopa2 (karopai) = 270 karu karunau kasaru kasi kasidizuitanai Kasikidaa kasitero katanite kataro scarab (Egyptian) kati kaudeta = 280 keda keire kekiru kera/kero keta/kete ketesunata kezadidi kida/kidi kidapa kidaro = 290 kidata kidini kidiora kii/kiipa kija kika kikadi kikiraja kimu kina = 300 kinima kinite kipaa kipisi (fairly common) kiqa kira/kiro kireta2 kiretana kireza kiro/kirisi/kiru = 310 kiso kisusetu kitai/kitei kitanasija kitiqa kito koiru koja kopu koru = 320 Kosaiti kuda kuja kujude kuka kukudara kumaju kumapu kunisu kupa/kupi = 330 kupa3natu kupa3nu kupa3pa3 kupa3rija kupaja kupari Kupatikidadia kupazu kuqani kura/kuramu =340 kurasaqa kureda kureju kuro/kurotu kuto kuruku kuruma kutiti Kutaistos Cf. LB Kitaito kutukore kuzuni = 350 maa madadu madi mai/maimi majutu makaise makaita makarite makidete mana/manapi (common)= 360 maniki manirizu manuqa maru/maruku/maruri masa/masaja masi/masidu masuja masuri matapu mateti = 370 matiti matizaite matu maza/mazu meda medakidi mekidi mepajai mera merasasaa/merasasaja (very common) = 380 mesasa mesenurutu meto meturaa meza mia midai midani midamara2 (midamarai) midara = 390 midemidiu mie miima mijanika mijuke mikidua mikisena minaminapii minedu mini/miniduwa = 400 minumi minute (sing. minuta2 – minutai) mio/miowa mipa mireja miru mirutarare misimiri misuma mita = 410 miturea mizase mujatewi muko mupi murito muru musaja naa nadare = 420 nadi/nadiradi/nadiredi nadiwi nadu nadunapu2a naisizamikao naka nakiki nakininuta nakuda namarasasaja = 430 namatiti nami namikua/namikuda namine nanau nanipa3 napa3du narepirea naridi narinarikui = 440 narita naroka naru nasarea nasekimi nasi nasisea nataa/nataje natanidua natareki (common) = 450 nati nazuku/nazuru nea neakoa nedia nedira neka/nekisi nemaduka nemaruja nemiduda = 460 nemusaa Nenaarasaja neqa neramaa nerapa/nerapaa nere nesa/nesaki/nesakimi nesasawi nesekuda neta = 470 netapa netuqe nidapa nidiki/nidiwa niduti nijanu niku/nikutitii nimi nipa3 nira2 (nirai) -or- nita2 (nisai) = 480 niro/niru nisi nisudu nisupu niti nizuka nizuuka nua nude nuki/nukisikija = 490 numida/numideqe nupa3ku (extremely common) nupi nuqetu nuti/nutini Nutiuteranata nutu nuwi odami/odamia opi = 500 ora2dine (oraidine) osuqare otanize oteja pa (common)/paa padaru padasuti pade padupaa Paito = Phaistos = 510 pa3a/pa3ana pa3da pa3dipo pa3katari pa3kija pa3ku pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi pa3pa3ku pa3qa pa3roka = 520 pa3sase pa3waja paja/pajai/pajare paka (very common)/paku (very common)/pakuka pamanuita panuqe para parane paria paroda = 530 parosu pasarija pase pasu pata/patada/pataqe/patu patane pia/pii pija/pijani/pijawa piku/pikui/pikuzu pimata pimento = 540 pimitatira2 (pimitatirai) pina/pini pirueju pisa pita/pitaja pitakase/pitakesi pitara piwaa piwaja piwi = 550 posa potokuro pu2juzu pu2su/pu2sutu pu3pi pu3tama puko punikaso puqe pura2 = 560 pusa/pusi pusuqe qara2wa qa2ra2wa qajo qaka qanuma qapa3 (qapai) qapaja/qapajanai qaqada = 570 qaqaru qareto Qaqisenuti qaro qasaraku qatidate qati/qatiki qatiju qedeminu qeja = 580 qeka qenamiku qenupa qepaka qepita qepu qequre qera2u/qera2wa qeri qero = 590 qerosa qesite qesizue qesupu qesusui qeta2e qeti/qetiradu qetune qisi qoroqa = 600 quqani raa rada/radaa/radakuku/radami radarua radasija radizu radu ra2i ra2ka ra2madami = 610 ra2miki ra2natipiwa ra2pu/ra2pu2 ra2ri (rairi) = lily ra2rore ra2ru ra2saa raja/raju rakaa raki/rakii/rakisi/raku = 620 ranatusu rani raodiki rapa/rapu rapu3ra raqeda rarasa rarua rasa/rasi rasamii = 630 rasasaa/rasasaja rata/ratapi ratada ratise (ritise?) razua rea reda (common)/redana/redasi redamija redise reduja = 640 reja/rejapa rekau rekotuku reku/rekuqa/rekuqe rema/rematuwa remi renara/renaraa renute repa Repu2dudatapa = 650 repu3du reqasuo reradu rera2tusi reratarumi rerora2 rese/resi/resu See sere retaa/retada retaka retata2 = 660 retema reza rezakeiteta ria (common) ridu rikata rima rimisi ripaku ripatu = 670 riqesa rira/riruma rirumate risa Risaipa3dai Risumasuri ritaje rite/ritepi ritoe rodaa/rodaki = 680 roika roke/roki/roku romaku romasa ronadi rore/roreka rosa = rose rosirasiro rotau roti = 690 rotwei rua rudedi ruiko ruja rujamime ruka/rukaa/ruki/rukike Rukito ruko rukue = 700 ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase rupoka ruqa/ruqaqa (common) rusa (common/rusaka rusi rutari rutia ruzuna sadi saja/sajama/sajamana = 710 sajea saka sama/samaro samidae samuku sanitii sapo/sapi saqa saqeri sara2 (sarai)/sarara =720 sareju saro/saru/sarutu sasaja sasame = sesame sasupu sato sea/sei sedina sedire seikama = 730 Seimasusaa seitau sejarapaja sejasinataki sekadidi sekatapi sekidi Sekiriteseja sekutu semake = 740 semetu senu sepa sere sesapa3 Sesasinunaa Setamaru Seterimuajaku setira Setoija = 750 Sewaude sezami sezanitao sezaredu sezatimitu sia sidare/sidate sidi/sidija sii/siida/siisi siitau = 760 sija Sijanakarunau sika siketapi sikine Sikira/sikirita sima simara simita simito/simitu = mouse = 770 sina sinada sinae sinakanau (common) sinakase sinamiu sinatakira sinedui sipiki sipu3ka = 780 sire/siro/siru/sirute siriki Sirumarita2 Sitetu situ siwamaa sokanipu sokemase sudaja suja = 790 Sukirita/Sukiriteija = Sybrita suniku (common) supa3 (supai) supi/supu sure Suria suropa sutu/sutunara suu suzu = 800 taa tadaki/tadati tadeuka taikama Tainaro tainumapa Ta2merakodisi ta2re/ta2reki ta2riki Ta2rimarusi = 810 ta2tare ta2tite ta2u tajusu takaa/takari taki/taku/takui tamaduda tanamaje tanate/tanati Tanunikina = 820 tamaru tami/tamia/tamisi tani/taniria/tanirizu taniti tapa tapiida tapiqe tara/tarina tarasa tarawita = 830 tarejanai tarikisu taritama tasa/tasaja tasise tata/tati tateikezare tedasi/tedatiqa tedekima teepikia = 840 Teizatima tejai tejare tekare teke/teki tekidia temada/temadai temeku temirerawi tenamipi = 850 tenata/tenataa tenatunapa3ku tenekuka teneruda teniku tenitaki tenu/tenumi (common) tepi tera/tere/teri tera teraseda = 860 tereau tereza teri/teridu terikama tero/teroa terusi (extremely common) tesi/tesiqe Tesudesekei tetita2 tetu = 870 Tewirumati Tidama tidata tidiate tiditeqati tiduitii/tiisako tija tika tikiqa tikuja = 880 Tikuneda timaruri/timaruwite timasa timi timunuta tina Tinakarunau tinata (common)/tinita tinesekuda tininaka = 890 tinu/tinuka tinusekiqa tio tiqatediti tiqe/tiqeri/tiqeu tiraduja tira2 tirakapa3 tire tisa = 900 tisiritua tisudapa Tita titema titiku titima tiu tiumaja tizanukaa toipa = 910 tome toraka = Linear B toraka toreqa tuda tujuma tukidija tukuse tuma/tumi/tumitizase tunada/tunapa tunapa3ku = 920 Tunija tupadida tuqe turaa Turunuseme turusa tusi/tusu/tusupu2 tute/tutesi udami/udamia udimi = 930 udiriki uju uki Uminase unaa unadi (common) unakanasi unana unarukanasi/unarukanati upa = 940 uqeti urewi uro uso/usu uta/uta2 utaise utaro uti waduko waduna = 950 Wadunimi waja wanai wanaka wapusua wara2qa watepidu watumare wazudu wetujupitu = 960 widina widui wija Wijasumatiti Winadu winipa winu winumatari wiraremite wireu = 970 wirudu Wisasane witero zadeu/zadeujuraa zadua zama/zame zanwaija zapa zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea zasata = 980 zirinima zudu zukupi zuma zupaku zusiza zusu zute = 988 VERSUS Younger = 774 ( – numeric syllabograms + long strings + broken series of syllabograms). Hence Younger’s lexicon amounts to 78.3 % of this one, i.e. this lexicon contains 214 more entries and is 21.7 % longer.
Provisional count of Mycenaean-derived vocabulary in Linear A = 33.4 %: I have just finished calculating the provisional maximum number of probable/possible Mycenaean-derived New Minoan words in our Linear A Lexicon of 988 words, and the count comes to 330, which is 33.4%. However, there is still a good deal of research to be done before I can determine how many of these potential New Minoan words are in fact just that. I estimate that, once I have eliminated the possible candidates, and restricted myself to the probable, this figure should drop to around 25%, which is roughly in line with the percentage of French words in English = 29%.
Linear A Nouns: ultimate o: Masculine/neuter nouns and adjectives: KEY: OM = Old Minoan, Minoan substratum NM = New Minoan, Mycenaean-derived superstratum PGS = pre-Greek substratum Since this list is intended merely to be indicative of what appears to be the Minoan ultimate o for masculine and neuter nouns and adjectives, with a few exceptions intended to be illustrative, I have not defined any of the words here. They will be defined in our Complete Glossary of Minoan Vocabulary, consisting of over 950 words. adaro NM = a type of grain, barley amidao apero aruqaro asidatoi (pl.?) 5 dinaro ero NM jako jateo kairo 10 NM = due measure kero kidaro kiro NM kiso kito 15 kuro NM = reaching, attaining, i.e. total meto mio muko NM = corner, recess murito 20 niro Paito PGS = Phaistos (= Linear B) pa3dipo potokuro NM = a full drink, a brimming drink puko 25 OM = tripd qajo qareto qato qero 30 reqasuo roiko NM = broken (= Linear B) ruiko Cf. roiko Rukito PGS = Lykinthos (= Linear B, Rukito) ruko 35 sapo sato sezanitao simito PGS = mouse, attribute of Apollo, the Mouse God siro NM? 40 tero tio uro uso utaro 45 witero 46
Minoan Grammar: Nouns & adjectives: Masculine: ultimate u, nominative masculine singular: Part 2: D-Z depu-tanirizu 86-150 depu kopu kumapu matapu nisupu 90 qepu ra2pu rapu sasupu sokanipu 95 supu adaru akaru atiru dideru = emmer wheat 100 dimaru diru ditajaru jaru kaporu 105 karu kasaru kekiru kiru koiru NM 110 koru NM maru miru muru naru 115 nazuru niru padaru qaqaru ra2ru 120 saru setamaru saru siru tamaru terusi(declension) 125 dusu kunisu = emmer wheat usu zusu siitau 130 aratu kisusetu majutu mesenerutu nutu 135 rera2tusi (declined) ripatu sarutu semetu senu 140 sezatimitu sitetu sutu juu duzu 140 kupazu manarizu mazu nazuku nasuru 145 pikuzu pu2juzu radizu suzu tanirizu 150
Minoan Grammar: Nouns & adjectives: Masculine: ultimate u, nominative masculine singular: Part 1: A adu-winu 1-85 Apparently, there are fewer than the 200 nouns and adjectives for the nominative, masculine singular of nouns and adjectives than I had estimated. However, 150 is still a significant cross-section of of our Minoan Linear A Lexicon of 950+ words, accounting for 15.8 % of all vocabulary in the Lexicon. adu dimedu edu inaimadu jadu 5 judu madadu minedu nadu napa3du 10 nisudu qetiradu radu repu3du reradu 15 ridu sezaredu teridu watepidu wazudu 20 wirudu zaredu zudu aju araju NM 25 kaju kumaju kureju pirueju sareju 30 uju daku dejuku jaku japaku 35 jaripa3ku jatituku jumaku kaku NM kuruku NM 40 maruku nazuku niku nupa3ku pa3ku 50 pa3pa3ku paku NM? piku qasaraku qenamiku 55 radakuku raku rekotuku reku ripaku 60 romaku samuku suniku NM taku NM temeku 65 tenatunapa3ku teniku titiku tunapa3ku zapaku 70 dinau karunau sijanakarunau Akanu daminu 75 jakisisinu jarinu kupa3nu nijanu nutu 80 panuqe senu tenu tinu winu 85
Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 969 words, the most complete Linear A Lexicon ever by far, with at least 250 terms more than Prof. John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon: At this juncture in my ongoing endeavour to decipher Linear A, I have run across so many tablets with New Minoan Mycenaean derived superstratum words that I am confident I am well on the way to deciphering New Minoan. Such is not the case with Old Minoan, i.e. the original Minoan language a.k.a. the Minoan substratum. But even there I have managed to decipher at least 100 words more or less accurately, bringing the total of Old Minoan, New Minoan and pre-Greek substratum vocabulary to around 250 out of the 969 Linear A words I have isolated in my Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon, by far the most complete Linear A Lexicon ever to appear online, exceeding Prof. John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon by at least 250. Since this new Lexicon is so large and I intend to publish it soon in its entirety on my academia.edu account, there is no point rehashing it here. Instead, I shall tantalize you with just a few excerpts, to give you at least a notion of how far I have taken this labour-intensive project. ******************************************************* Excerpta from the Complete Linear A lexicon of 969 words: This lexicon comprises all of the intact words in John G. Younger’s Linear A Reverse Lexicon (which is far from comprehensive) plus every last intact word on every single tablet at his site, wherever any of the latter are not found in the former. By my count, there are 969 words, some 250 more than in Prof. John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon. Words which are apparent variants of one another are listed as one entry, e.g. daka/daki/daku/dakuna dakusene(ti) japa/japadi/japaku kira/kiro/kirisi/kiru maru/maruku/maruri merasasaa/merasasaja nesa/nesaki/nesakimi piku/pikui/pikuzu reda/redamija/redana/redasi saro/saru/sarutu tami/tamia/tamisi zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea The following entries have been deliberately omitted: 1 Words containing any syllabograms which are either partially or wholly numeric, since we do not know what the phonetic values of these syllabograms are. 2 Strings of syllabograms > than 15 characters. KEY: OM = Old Minoan, the original Minoan language, denominated the Minoan substratum. Words are tagged OM only where I have been able to decipher any of them. PGS = pre-Greek substratum, i.e. words, man of which are non-Indo-European, in existence before Mycenaean and ancient Greek, but which entered Greek and were probably present in Old Minoan, even if many of them do not appear on Linear A tablets or fragments. NM = New Minoan, Mycenaean derived or words of Mycenaean origin in Linear A a adai adakisika adara/adaro/adaru OM ade/adu OM -or- NM = ades-, ados- sort of cereal adunitana adureza OM aduza ajesa aju 10 Akanu PGS = Archanes (Crete) ... passim ... dame/dami (sing. damai) PGS daminu danasi 80 danekuti daqaqa daqera OM dare darida OM daropa OM darunete daserate dasi OM datapa 90 datara/datare data2 OM datu OM Dawa PGS (Haghia Triada) daweda OM ... passim ... kanaka PGS kanita kanuti kapa/kapaqe/kapi NM kaporu NM kapusi NM? kaqa/kaqe kara NM karona NM? karopa2 (karopai) OM 260 karu NM? karunau kasaru kasi kasidizuitanai kasikidaa kasitero NM ... passim ... mini/miniduwa NM minumi minute (sing. minuta2 - minutai) mio/miowa 400 mipa mireja miru mirutarare misimiri misuma mita PGS Paito = Phaistos pa3a/pa3ana NM? pa3da pa3dipo pa3katari pa3kija 510 ... passim ... pimitatira2 (pimitatirai) OM pina/pini pirueju pisa pita/pitaja 540 pitakase/pitakesi NM pitara piwaa/piwaja piwi posa NM potokuro NM? pu2juzu pu2su/pu2sutu pu3pi pu3tama 550 puko OM = tripod ... passim ... roke/roki/roku romaku romasa ronadi rore/roreka rosa PGS = rose rosirasiro PGS = planted rose (rose + hole sunk in the ground) rotau 680 roti OM = a type of grain or wheat (Petras) rotwei rua rudedi ruiko rujamime ruka/rukaa/ruki/rukike Rukito (topo) PGS ruko NM? rukue 690 ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase rupoka ruqa/ruqaqa (common) rusa (common/rusaka rusi rutari rutia ruzuna ... passim ... sadi saja/sajama/sajamana OM 700 sajea saka NM sama/samaro samidae PGS? samuku OM sanitii sapo/sapi saqa saqeri sara2 (sarai)/sarara PGS = sharia wheat 690 710 ... passim ... taikama OM PGS tainumapa ta2merakodisi ta2re/ta2reki ta2riki ta2rimarusi ta2tare ta2tite ta2u tajusu 800 takaa/takari taki/taku/takui NM tamaduda tanamaje tanate/tanati NM tanunikina tamaru tami/tamia/tamisi NM tani/taniria/tanirizu taniti 810 tapa NM = Linear B ... passim ... udami/udamia NM? udimi udiriki uju NM? uki NM? uminase OM unaa unadi (common) 920 unakanasi unarukanasi/unarukanati upa uqeti urewi uro NM uso/usu uta/uta2 utaise utaro 930 uti waduko wadunimi waja NM wanai wanaka PGS wapusua wara2qa watepidu NM watumare 940 wazudu wetujupitu widina widui wija NM wijasumatiti Winadu PGS (topomastics) winipa winu NM winumatari NM 950 wiraremite wireu NM wirudu wisasane witero NM? zadeu/zadeujuraa zadua zama/zame zanwaija zapa 960 zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea zasata zirinima zudu zukupi zuma zupaku zusiza zute 969
Linear A fragment Petras V House III = grain husks in New Minoan + comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 969 words: This Linear A fragment is one of the most recent findings. It appears to be entirely in New Minoan, i.e. from the Mycenaean derived superstratum. It definitely deals with wheat, as its ideogram appears to the far left. What appears to be the syllabogram ti or pi (though I interpret it as the latter) is inscribed with RO, which just happens to correspond to the Mycenaean and ancient Greek word lopos, but which in this case is lopi (i.e. dative singular). Hence, it would appear that we are dealing with 1 1/2 units (something along the lines of bushels) of wheat husk. When I speak of bushels, I mean merely a generous approximation, since we have no idea what the standard unit of measurement for wheat or barley was either in the Minoan or in Mycenaean era. But it gives us at least an idea of how much wheat we are dealing with. At this juncture in my ongoing endeavour to decipher Linear A, I have run across so many tablets with New Minoan Mycenaean derived superstratum words that I am confident I am well on the way to deciphering New Minoan. Such is not the case with Old Minoan, i.e. the original Minoan language a.k.a. the Minoan substratum. But even there I have managed to decipher at least 100 words more or less accurately, bringing the total of Old Minoan, New Minoan and pre-Greek substratum vocabulary to around 250 out of the 969 Linear A words I have isolated in my Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon, by far the most complete Linear A Lexicon ever to appear online, exceeding Prof. John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon by at least 250.
Supplement to the Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: Onomastics and Topomastics: +12 = 904 - 916 It is understood that I have personally interpreted the words below as either eponyms (personal names) or toponyms (place names), but some of them may be neither, being perhaps merely words. It is also possible that one or more of the 3 terms I have listed as onomastics may be topomastics, and that any number of those I have classed as topomastics may be onomastics (or neither). Onomastics: Kanajami Tateikezare Tidiate Toponomastics: Akanu = Archanes (Crete) Dawa (Haghia Triada) 5 Dikate = Mount Dikte Idaa = Mount Ida Kura Meza (= Linear B Masa) Paito = Phaistos (= Linear B) 10 Sukirita/Sukiriteija = Sybrita Winadu = Linear B Inato 12 TOTAL for the Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon = 916
Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 801-903 = TI - ZU tikuja tikuneda timaruri/timaruwite timasa timi timunuta tina tinakarunau tinata (common)/tinita tinesekuda 810 tininaka tinu tinuka tinusekiqa tio tiqatediti tiqe/tiqeri/tiqeu tiraduja tirakapa3 tira2 820 tire tisa tisiritua tisudapa tita titema titiku titima tiu tiumaja 830 tizanukaa toipa tome toreqa tuda tujuma tukidija tukuse tuma/tumi/tumitizase tunada/tunapa 840 tunapa3ku tunija tupadida tuqe turaa turunuseme turusa tusi/tusu/tusupu2 tute tutesi 850 udamia udimi udiriki uju uki uminase unaa unadi (common) unakanasi unarukanasi/unarukanati 860 uqeti urewi usu uta/uta2 utaise utaro uti waduko wadunimi waja 870 wanai wapusua wara2qa watepidu watumare wazudu widina widui wija wijasumatiti 880 winadu winipa winu winumatari wiraremite wireu wirudu wisasane witero zadeu/zadeujuraa 890 zadua zama/zame zanwaija zapa zarse/zaredu/zareki/zaresea zasata zirinima zudu zukupi zuma 900 zupaku zusiza zute 903
Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 701-800 = SI - TI sina sinada sinae sinakanau (common) sinakase sinamiu sinatakira sinedui sipiki sipu3ka 710 siriki siwamaa sokanipu sudaja suja suniku (common) sure Suria suropa siru/sirute 720 sirumarita2 sitetu situ sokemase sutu/sutunara suu suzu taa tadaki/tadati tadeuka 730 taikama tainumapa ta2tare ta2tite tajusu takaa/takari taki/taku/takui tamaduda tamaru temeku 740 tami/tamia/tamisi tanamaje tanate/tanati tani/taniria/tanirizu taniti tanunikina tapa tapiida tapiqe tara/tarina 750 tarejanai tarikisu taritama tasa/tasaja tasise tata/tati tateikezare ta2merakodisi ta2re/ta2reki ta2riki 760 ta2rimarusi ta2u tedasi/tedatiqa tedekima teepikia teizatima tejai tejuda teke/teki tekidia 770 temada/temadai temirerawi tenamipi tenata/tenataa tenatunapa3ku tenekuka teneruda teniku tenitaki tenu/tenumi (common) 780 tera/tere/teri teraseda tereau terikama teridu tero teroa terusi (extremely common) tesi/tesiqe tesudesekei 790 tetu tetita2 tewirumati tidama tidata tiditeqati tiduitii/tiisako tija tika tikiqa 800
Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 601-700 = RE - SI rezakeiteta ria (common) ridu rikata rima rimisi ripaku ripatu riqesa rira/riruma/rirumate 610 risa risaipa3dai risumasuri ritaje rite/ritepi ritoe rodaa/rodaki roika roke/roki/roku romaku 620 romasa ronadi rore/roreka rosa rosirasiro rotau rotwei rua rudedi ruiko rujamime ruka/rukaa/ruki/rukike ruko rukue ruma rumu/rumata/rumatase rupoka ruqa/ruqaqa (common) rusa (common/rusaka rusi rutari rutia ruzuna sadi saja/sajama sajea saka sama/samaro samidae sanitii 650 sapo sapi saqa saqeri sara2/sarara sareju saro/saru/sarutu sasaja sasame sea sedire sei seikama seimasusaa seitau sejarapaja sejasinataki sesasinunaa sekadidi sekatapi 670 sekidi semake semetu senu sepa sekutu sesapa3 setamaru setira Setoija 680 sewaude sezami sezanitao sezaredu sezatimitu sia sidare/sidate sidi sidija sii/siisi 690 siitau sija sijanakarunau sika siketapi sikine sikira/sikirita sima simara simita 700