Bachelor of Arts, Linguistics, conferred on Rita Roberts May 7 2020
Tag: applied linguistics
CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN HITTITE: Present and Preterite (past tense)
CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN HITTITE: Present and Preterite (past tense) Conjugation: Present active: MI: HI: uncommon sing. Sing. 1 mi 1 hi (/hhi/ahhi) 2 si 2 ti 3 zi 3 i pl. pl. MI = HI 1 weni//wani/ueni 1 weni 2 teni 2 teni 3 anzi 3 anzi PRESENT: es = to be MI 1 esmi 2 essi 3 eszi 1 esuwani ... 3 asanzi ses = to sleep MI 1 sesmi 2 ... 3 seszi 1 sesueni 2 ... 3 sesanzi ed = to eat MI 1 edmi 2 ezzassi 3 ezzazzi/ezzai 1 eduwani 2 ezzatteni 3 adanzi kuen = to strike, kill MI Cf. kill (English) + tuer (French) 1 kuemi 2 kuesi 3 kuenzi 1 kuennummeni 2 kuenatteni 3 kunanzi hark = to hold, to have MI 1 harmi (k dropped before consonant) 2 harsi/harti (k dropped before consonant) 3 harzi (k dropped before consonant) 1 harweni/harwani (k dropped before consonant) 2 harteni (k dropped before consonant) 3 harkzani istamas = to hear MI 1 istamasmi 2 istamassi (istamasti/istamaszi) 3 istamaszi 1 istamasteni 2 ... 3 istamassanzi punus = to ask MI 1 punusmi 2 ... 3 punuszi 1 punussueni 2 ... 3 punussanzi uwate = to bring MI 1 uwatemi 2 uwatesi 3 uwatezzi 1 uwateweni (uwatewani 2 uwatetteni (uwatettani) 3 uwadanzi lami = to detach HI? 1 lami 2 lasi 3 lai 1 ... 2 ... 3 lanzi te = to speak MI 1 temi 2 tesi 3 tezzi 1 tarweni (te -> ta in the plural) 2 tarteni 3 taranzi pai = to go MI 1 paimi 2 paisi (pasi/paitti) 3 paizzi 1 paiweni (paiwani) 2 paitteni (paittani) 3 panzi hatrai = to write MI 1 hatrami 2 hatrasi 3 hatraizzi 1 hatraweni 2 ... 3 ... kupawi = to count MI Cf. français “couper” 1 ... 2 kupuesi 3 kuppuwaizi (kupuezzi) 1 ... 2 kuppuwateni 3 kuppwanzi handai = to add MI 1 handami 2 handasi 3 handaizzi (hantesa/handai) 1 ... 2 ... 3 handanzi iya = to do MI 1 iyami (iyammi) 2 iyasi 3 iyazi (iyazzi/iezi) 1 iyaweni (iyawani) 2 iyatteni 3 iyanzi wemiya = to find MI 1 wemiyami 2 wemiyasi 3 wemiyaz(z)i (wemiezi) 1 wemiyaweni 2 ... 3 wemiyanzi harnink = to destroy HI 1 harrikmi (drops n before consonant) 2 harrikti (drops n before consonant) 3 harrnikti (drops n before consonant) 1 ... 2 harnikteni (drops n before consonant) 3 harninkanzi sarnink = to replace MI 1 sarnikmi (drops n before consonant) 2 ... 3 sarnikzi (drops n before consonant) 1 sarninkueni 2 sarnikteni (drops n before consonant) 3 sarninkanzi ninik = to mobilize MI 1 ... 2 ... 3 ninikzi 1 ... 2 ninikteni 3 nininkanzi akkusk = to drink a lot MI 1 ... 2 uskusi (uskatti) ask -> usk 3 uskizzi 1 ... 2 uskatteni 3 uskanzi azzikk = to adore (all the time) MI 1 ... 2 ... 3 azzikizzi 1 ... 2 azzikkittani 3 azzikktanzi arnu = to bring MI 1 arnum(m)i 2 arnusi 3 arnuz(z)i 1 arnummeni 2 arnutenni 3 arnuwa(n)zi assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain MI 1 assanumi 2 assanusi/asnusi 3 assanuz(z)i/asnuzi 1 ... 2 ... 3 assanuanzi PRETERITE: Preterite active: MI: HI: 1 (n)un 1 h(hun) 2 sta 2 (s)ta 3 sta/t 3 s pl. 1 wen/uen 1 wen MI = HI 2 ten 2 ten 3 er/ir 3 er/ir es = to be MI 1 esun 2 esta 3 esta 1 esuen 2 esten 3 esir ses= to sleep MI 1 sesun 2 sesta 3 ... 1 sesuen 2 ... 3 seser ed = to eat MI 1 edun 2 ... 3 ezta 1 ... 2 ... 3 eter kuen = to strike, kill MI 1 kuenun (kuenunun) 2 kuinnesta kue -> kui 3 kuenta 1 kueun (kuinnummen) 2 kuenten 3 kuennir hark = to hold, to have MI (Alexandre, please double check this!) 1 harkun 2 ... 3 harta 1 harwen 2 harten 3 harkir istamas = to hear MI 1 istamassun 2 ... 3 istamasta 1 ... 2 istamasten 3 istamassir punus = to ask MI 1 punussun 2 punusta 3 punusta 1 punussuen 2 ... 3 punussir uwate = to bring MI? 1 uwatenun 2 uwatet 3 uwatet 1 uwatewen 2 ... 3 uwater lami = to detach MI? 1 laun 2 lais 3 lait 1 lawen 2 ... 3 ... te = to speak MI 1 tenun 2 3 tet 1 ... 2 ... 3 ... pai = to go MI 1 paun 2 ... 3 pait/paitta 1 paiwen 2 .... 3 pair hatrai = to write MI/HI? 1 hatranun 2 hatraes 3 hatrait/hatraes 1 ... 2 ... 3 hatrair kupawi = to count MI Cf. to count (English), compter (French), contare (Italian) 1 kappuwanun – kup -> kapp 2 kappuit 3 kappuwait/kappuet 1 ... 2 ... 3 ... handai = to add MI 1 hatrunun d -> t (drops n before consonant t) 2 hatraes (drops n before consonant t) 3 hatrai/hatraes 1 ... 2 ... 3 hatrair (drops n before consonant t) iya = to do MI 1 iyanun 2 iyas/iyat 3 iyas/iet 1 iyawen 2 iyatten 3 ier wemiya = to find MI 1 wemiyanun 2 ... 3 wemiyat/wemit 1 wemiyawen 2 ... 3 wemiyer harnink = to destroy HI? 1 harinkun 2 harikta (drops n before consonant k) 3 harnikta (drops n before consonant k) 1 ... 2 3 harninkir sarnink = to replace 1 sarninkun 2 ... 3 sarnikta 1 ... 2 ... 3 ... akkusk = to drink a lot MI 1 uskinun 2 ... 3 uskit 1 usgawen 2 ... 3 ... arnu = to bring MI 1 arnunun 2 ... 3 arnut 1 ... 2 ... 3 arnuir/arnuer assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain 1 assanunun 2 ... 3 assanut 1 ... 2 ... 3 assanuir April 25 2020
DECLENSIONS OF NOUNS IN HITTITE
DECLENSIONS OF NOUNS IN HITTITE NOUNS in Hittite: Noun declensions are fragmentary Declensions: ABL = from, of etc. ALL (directive) = to (direction) Common (masculine/feminine): sing. NOM as/is/us GEN as/iyas ACC an DAT/LOC i INST it/ta ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz ALL a (almost never attested) pl. NOM es/is ACC us GEN an/as DAT/LOC as INST it/ta ABL za/aza man = antuhsas sing. NOM antuhsas GEN antuhsas ACC antuhsan DAT/LOC antuhsi ABL antuhsaz pl. NOM antuhses ACC antuhsus GEN antuhsas DAT/LOC antuhsas anna = mother sing. NOM annas GEN annas ACC annan DAT/LOC anni ABL annaz pl. NOM annis ACC annus aruna = sea sing. NOM arunas GEN arunas ACC arunan DAT/LOC aruni ABL arunaz(za) pl. ACC arunus kessara = hand kess -> kiss sing. NOM kessaras GEN kissaras ACC kisseran DAT/LOC kissiri INST kisserit ABL kissaraz(a) pl. ACC kisserus isha = lord sing. NOM ishas DAT/LOC ishi/eshe ALL isha pl. NOM ishes DAT/LOC ishas halki = cereal sing. NOM halkis GEN halkiyas ACC halkin INST halkit ABL halkiyaza pl. NOM halkis ACC halkius/halkes tuzzi = army sing. NOM tuzzis/tuzziyas GEN tuzzias ACC tuzzin DAT/LOC tuzziya ABL ... tuzziyaz pl. ACC tuzzius halukanni = chariot sing. NOM halukannis GEN halugannas ACC halukanin DAT/LOC haluganni(ya) INST halukannit ABL ...haluganniyaz(a) halhaltumari = cornerstone sing. DAT/LOC halhaltumari(ya) pl. NOM halhaltumares GEN halhaltumariyas DAT/LOC halhaltumariyas ABL halhaltumaraza huwasi = grindstone sing. NOM huwasi GEN huwasiyas DAT/LOC huwasi(ya) ABL huwasiyaz pl. NOM huwasi ispantuzzi = wine barrel sing. NOM ispantuzzi GEN ispantuzziyas DAT/LOC ispantuzzi INST ispantuzzit ABL ispantuzziaz zahhai = battle sing. NOM zahhais GEN zahhias ACC zahhain/zahhin DAT/LOC zahhiya ABL ... zahhiyaz(a) lengai = oath sing. GEN likiyas/lingayas ACC lingain DAT/LOC linkiya/lingai ABL linkiaza pl. NOM lingais ACC lingaus zashai = dream sing. ACC zashain DAT/LOC zashiya INST zashit ABL ...zashiyaz pl. ACC zahsimus harnau = chair sing. NOM harnaus GEN harnawas ACC harnaun DAT/LOC harnawi wellu = meadow sing. NOM wellus ACC wellun DAT/LOC welli ABL welluwaz pl. DAT/LOC welluwas heu = rain sing. NOM heus GEN hewas ACC heun INST heawit pl. NOM hewes/heyawes ACC heus siu = god NOM siunis/DINGURus as/iyas ACC siunin DAT/LOC siuni INST siunit ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz pl. NOM siwannies ACC simus GEN siunan/siunas uttar = word Cf. “utter” (English) NOM uttar GEN uddanas DAT/LOC udani INST uddanit ABL .. udanaza/undananza pl. NOM uddar GEN uddanas DAT/LOC uddanas memiya = word Cf. “memory” (English) + “mémoire” (French) etc. sing. NOM memiyas GEN memiyanas ACC memiyan DAT/LOC memiyani INST meminit pl. ACC memiyanus eshar = blood NOM eshar GEN eshanas DAT/LOC eshani INST eshanta ABL eshanaza/esnaza watar = water Cf. all sorts of Indo-European languages, especially “water” (English) NOM watar GEN witenas DAT/LOC witeni INST wetenit ABL ...wetenaza pahhuar = fire NOM pahhuwar GEN pahhuwenas DAT/LOC pahhueni INST pahhuenit ABL pahhuenaz mehur = time NOM mehur DAT/LOC mehueni hilammar = gate Common (masculine/feminine): sing. NOM hillamar GEN hillamnas ACC hillamar DAT/LOC hillamni INST it/ta ABL hillamnaz ALL hillamna nepis = sky sing. NOM nepis GEN nepisas DAT/LOC nepisi ABL nepisaz(a) ALL nepisa ais = mouth sing. NOM ais GEN issas DAT/LOC issi INST issit ABL issaz isgaruh = container, vessel sing. NOM isqaruh/iskarih DAT/LOC hi INST isqaruit arkamma = tribute sing. NOM arkammas GEN arkammanaas ACC arkamman pl. ACC arkammus muri(yan) = grapefruit sing. NOM mures INST murinit ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz ALL a (almost never attested) pl. ACC muriyanus kard= heart Cf. “heart” (English) + “coeur” (French) etc. etc. sing. NOM SA(ideogram)+ir GEN kardiyas DAT/LOC kardi INST kardit ABL kartaz ALL karta parn = house sing. NOM pir GEN parnas DAT/LOC parni ABL parnaza ALL parna (almost never attested) Adjectives: salli = big sing. NOM sallis GEN sallas/sallaiyas ACC sallin DAT/LOC sallai ABL ...sallayaz ALL a pl. NOM sallaes ACC sallaus/sallius DAT/LOC sallayas suppi = pure NOM suppis GEN suppayas DAT/LOC suppai/suppi/suppa/suppaya INST suppit ABL suppayaza pl. NOM suppaes/suppis ACC suppaus DAT/LOC suppayas/suppiyas ABL suppayaza karuili = old sing. NOM karuilis GEN karuilias ACC karuilun ABL karuililes/karuiliyas pl. NOM karuiles/ karuiliyas GEN karuila DAT/LOC karuiliyas assu = good sing. NOM assus GEN assawas ACC assun DAT/LOC assawi INST assawet ABL ... assawaza pl. NOM assawes ACC assamus DAT/LOC INST assawet parku = high sing. NOM parkus GEN parkuwas ACC parkun DAT/LOC pargawe ABL pargawaz pl. NOM pargawes/pargaus ACC pargamus/pargaus DAT/LOC pargawas April 26 2020
Just uploaded to academia.edu, An Introductory Glossary of General Linguistics Terminology (PDF)
Just uploaded to academia.edu, An Introductory Glossary of General Linguistics Terminology (PDF) Abstract: This glossary serves as a baseline introduction to linguistics terminology. As such, at first glance, it may not appear to be of much value to those of us who are linguists. However, if you are a professor or teacher of linguistics, you may find this little glossary of benefit to your students, especially undergraduates. As for those of you who are archaeologists and whose field of specialization is not linguistics, you will more than likely find this little lexicon of some real practical value if ever you have need to have recourse to linguistics terminology. There are as well plenty of other people whose specialization is not linguistics, but who would like to familiarize themselves with at least some of the most generalized terminology of linguistics. Moreover, there are those among you who are not professional linguists at all, but who may have contributed something of real merit to the field, or are about to to do so. Recall the astonishing contribution of Michael Ventris, an architect and not a professional linguist at all, who single-handedly deciphered the Linear B syllabary as the script of the earliest East Greek dialect, Mycenaean Greek, not to mention many other geniuses outside the orbit of linguistics who have also made revelatory if not revolutionary discoveries that no linguist ever realized. We should keep firmly in mind that Michael Ventris alone managed to decipher Linear B, after a half-century of utterly fruitless attempts by professional linguists to accomplish this astounding feat of the intellect. This is not to say that a great many academic linguists have not accomplished similar remarkable breakthroughs in the field, because they most certainly have. Still, linguistics, like any other field of study in the humanities or sciences, is not the exclusive purview of the so-called ivory tower league. Whether or not we are ourselves matriculated linguists, we should always bear this in mind. Finally, lest we forget, there are many among us may simply be curious about general Linguistics Terminology, in order to familiarize yourself with it, just in case a glossary such as this one, however limited, may whet your appetite for more. You never know. Nothing venture, nothing gained. END of ABSTRACT
Because this little glossary is in PDF format, it is very easy for you to download it, save it on your computer so that you can view it in Adobe Acrobat, and even print it out at your leisure. To download this glossary, click on this LINK: As for my own status on academia.edu, of which I have been a member for just under a month, yesterday I had 94 followers, today I have 100, while at the same time my page has already been viewed 1,215 times as of the time of this writing. Yesterday I was in the top 1% of researchers cited, or whose work was downloaded on academia.edu, while now I am in the top 0.5%. The most astonishing thing is that my paper, Did you know you speak Mycenaean Greek? You do! sas already been downloaded 373 times from academia.edu, placing it firmly in the top 2% of all articles, documents, research papers etc. downloaded from there in the past 30 days. And it has only been online for three weeks at most.
Is academia.edu for you? You bet it is!
If nothing else, I have come to the definitive conclusion that academia.edu is a far better venue than any other on the entire Internet for students and researchers in any academic field whatsoever. If you wish to see your research papers downloaded more often than anywhere else on the Internet, this is the place to be. It is far more efficient in attracting the attention of the international open research community than any other place on the Internet, bar none. So if you are an academic or even a student in any discipline whatsoever, you really should sign up for academia.edu, and it is free! Go here to sign up: I am truly grateful for the attention that researchers, academics and students on this prestigious site are giving to my research, yet surely not mine alone, but also that of my distinguished colleague and fellow researcher, Rita Roberts of Crete. Keep your eyes on Rita's own academia.edu page, where she will soon be uploading her seminal article on her translation of Pylos Tablet Py 641-1952, the very first that Michael Ventris himself translated in 1952. Rita's translation is bound to arouse a lot of attention on academia.edu, since she is an archaeologist with a unique perspective on the import of this famous tablet, thus in a position to produce a translation which those of us as linguists may have overlooked. I for one would never have been able to accomplished a translation in the manner Rita Roberts has finessed hers. Please remember to follow Rita on academia.edu, as that the place where she will eventually be publishing all of her research articles and documents on Mycenaean Linear B. Until such time as it appears on academia.edu, to review her excellent translation, please click here: Our special offer to assist in the promotion of our fellow researchers who often visit our blog: By the way, if any of you who often visit us here at Linear B, Knossos & Mycenae would like us to promote you on academia.edu (once you have signed up there), we will be delighted to do so, regardless of your own area of research, even if it has nothing to do with linguistics. We shall post the links to the academia.edu pages of the first 5 people who request this of us, once that many have contacted us with this in mind (but not before). So please be patient and bear with us. We are behind you all 100%. Richard
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