## Decipherment of Linear A tablet HT 7, probably inscribed in New Minoan, i.e. the Mycenaean superstratum

```Decipherment of Linear A tablet HT 7, probably inscribed in New Minoan, i.e. the Mycenaean superstratum:

Linear A tablet HT 7 (Haghia Triada) may have been inscribed entirely in New Minoan, i.e. in the Mycenaean superstratum, and not in the Minoan substrate language at all. The decipherment does makes sense in proto-Greek, but I cannot account for the presence of the numbers 3 & 4, which casts doubt on it.
There is also the problem of human sacrifice. Some historians allege that the Minoans practised human sacrifice, but there is no proof of this at all. Besides, I find a bit strange that a civilization as advanced as the Minoan would have indulged in such a barbaric practice.  But you never know.

```

## First of 6 extremely rare Linear A fragments from Phaistos: 12a 12b 12 c

```First of 6 extremely rare Linear A fragments from Phaistos: 12a 12b 12 c

Above is the first of 6 extremely rare Linear A fragments from Phaistos: 12a 12b 12 c. The text is extremely difficult to interpret, but I have done my level best. 12a is pretty much indecipherable. 12b consists of fractions. 12c  consists of the single syllabogram TE, which might possibly be the supersyllabogram TE, which usually stands for tereza, a large standard unit of liquid measurement. It would mesh well enough with 12b, since that fragment is all fractions. But there is no way we can confirm this at all, since 12c is a fragment, doubtless with almost all of its original text absent. So without context, we cannot be sure of anything.

```

## Supplement to the Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: Onomastics and Topomastics: +12 = 904 – 916

```Supplement to the Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: Onomastics and Topomastics: +12 = 904 - 916

It is understood that I have personally interpreted the words below as either eponyms (personal names) or toponyms (place names), but some of them may be neither, being perhaps merely words. It is also possible that one or more of the 3 terms I have listed as onomastics may be topomastics, and that any number of those I have classed as topomastics may be onomastics (or neither).

Onomastics:

Kanajami
Tateikezare
Tidiate

Toponomastics:

Akanu = Archanes (Crete)
Dikate = Mount Dikte
Idaa = Mount Ida
Kura
Meza (= Linear B Masa)
Paito = Phaistos (= Linear B) 10
Sukirita/Sukiriteija = Sybrita
Winadu = Linear B Inato 12

TOTAL for the Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon = 916

```

## Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 801-903 = TI – ZU

```Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 801-903 = TI - ZU

tikuja
tikuneda
timaruri/timaruwite
timasa
timi
timunuta
tina
tinakarunau
tinata (common)/tinita
tinesekuda 810
tininaka
tinu
tinuka
tinusekiqa
tio
tiqatediti
tiqe/tiqeri/tiqeu
tirakapa3
tira2 820
tire
tisa
tisiritua
tisudapa
tita
titema
titiku
titima
tiu
tiumaja 830
tizanukaa
toipa
tome
toreqa
tuda
tujuma
tukidija
tukuse
tuma/tumi/tumitizase
tunapa3ku
tunija
tuqe
turaa
turunuseme
turusa
tusi/tusu/tusupu2
tute
tutesi 850
udamia
udimi
udiriki
uju
uki
uminase
unaa
unakanasi
unarukanasi/unarukanati 860
uqeti
urewi
usu
uta/uta2
utaise
utaro
uti
waja 870
wanai
wapusua
wara2qa
watepidu
watumare
wazudu
widina
widui
wija
wijasumatiti 880
winipa
winu
winumatari
wiraremite
wireu
wirudu
wisasane
witero
zama/zame
zanwaija
zapa
zarse/zaredu/zareki/zaresea
zasata
zirinima
zudu
zukupi
zuma 900
zupaku
zusiza
zute 903

```

## Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 701-800 = SI – TI

```Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 701-800 = SI - TI

sina
sinae
sinakanau (common)
sinakase
sinamiu
sinatakira
sinedui
sipiki
sipu3ka 710
siriki
siwamaa
sokanipu
sudaja
suja
suniku (common)
sure
Suria
suropa
siru/sirute 720
sirumarita2
sitetu
situ
sokemase
sutu/sutunara
suu
suzu
taa
taikama
tainumapa
ta2tare
ta2tite
tajusu
takaa/takari
taki/taku/takui
tamaru
temeku 740
tami/tamia/tamisi
tanamaje
tanate/tanati
tani/taniria/tanirizu
taniti
tanunikina
tapa
tapiida
tapiqe
tara/tarina 750
tarejanai
tarikisu
taritama
tasa/tasaja
tasise
tata/tati
tateikezare
ta2merakodisi
ta2re/ta2reki
ta2riki 760
ta2rimarusi
ta2u
tedasi/tedatiqa
tedekima
teepikia
teizatima
tejai
tejuda
teke/teki
tekidia 770
temirerawi
tenamipi
tenata/tenataa
tenatunapa3ku
tenekuka
teneruda
teniku
tenitaki
tenu/tenumi (common)  780
tera/tere/teri
teraseda
tereau
terikama
teridu
tero
teroa
terusi (extremely common)
tesi/tesiqe
tesudesekei 790
tetu
tetita2
tewirumati
tidama
tidata
tiditeqati
tiduitii/tiisako
tija
tika
tikiqa 800

```

## Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 601-700 = RE – SI

```Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 601-700 = RE - SI

rezakeiteta
ria (common)
ridu
rikata
rima
rimisi
ripaku
ripatu
riqesa
rira/riruma/rirumate 610
risa
risaipa3dai
risumasuri
ritaje
rite/ritepi
ritoe
rodaa/rodaki
roika
roke/roki/roku
romaku 620
romasa
rore/roreka
rosa
rosirasiro
rotau
rotwei
rua
rudedi
ruiko
rujamime
ruka/rukaa/ruki/rukike
ruko
rukue
ruma
rumu/rumata/rumatase
rupoka
ruqa/ruqaqa (common)
rusa (common/rusaka
rusi
rutari
rutia
ruzuna
saja/sajama
sajea
saka
sama/samaro
samidae
sanitii 650
sapo
sapi
saqa
saqeri
sara2/sarara
sareju
saro/saru/sarutu
sasaja
sasame
sea
sedire
sei
seikama
seimasusaa
seitau
sejarapaja
sejasinataki
sesasinunaa
sekatapi 670
sekidi
semake
semetu
senu
sepa
sekutu
sesapa3
setamaru
setira
Setoija 680
sewaude
sezami
sezanitao
sezaredu
sezatimitu
sia
sidare/sidate
sidi
sidija
sii/siisi 690
siitau
sija
sijanakarunau
sika
siketapi
sikine
sikira/sikirita
sima
simara
simita 700

```

## Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 501-600 = PI – RE

```Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 501-600 = PI - RE

pitara
piwaa/piwaja/piwi
posa
potokuro
puqe
pura2
pusa/pusi
pusuqe
pu2juzu
pu2su/pu2sutu 510
pu3pi
pu3tama
qaka
qanuma
qapaja/qapajanai
qaqaru
qera2u/qara2wa
qareto
qaro 520
qasaraku
qatidate
qatiki
qatiju
qedeminu
qeja
qeka
qenamiku
qenupa
qepaka 530
qepita
qepu
qequre
qera2u
qerosa
qeta2e
qesusui
qesite
qesizue
qesupu 540
qetune
raa
ra2rore
raja/raju 550
rakaa
raki/rakii
rakisi/raku
ranatusu
rani
raodiki
rapa/rapu
rapu3ra
raqeda
rarasa
rarua
rasa 560
rasamii
rasasaa/rasasaja
rasi
rata/ratapi
ratise
razua
ra2i
ra2ka
ra2miki
ra2natipiwa
ra2pu/ra2pu2
ra2ru
ra2saa
rea
reda (common)/redamija/redana/redasi
redise
reduja
reja/rejapa (common) 580
rekau
rekotuku
reku/rekuqa/rekuqe
rema/remi
rematuwa
renara/renaraa
renute
repa
repu2dudatapa
repu3du 590
reqasuo
reratarumi
rera2tusi
rerora2
resi/resu
retaka
retata2
retema 600

```

## Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 401-500 = NA – PI

```Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 401-500 = NA - PI

nasi
nasisea
nataa/nataje
natanidua
natareki (common)
nati
nazuku/nazuru
nea/neakoa
nedia
nedira
neka/nekisi 410
nemaruja
nemiduda
nemusaa
nenaarasaja
neqa
neramaa
nerapa/nerapaa
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi
nesasawi 420
nesekuda
neta
netapa
netuqe
nidapa
nidiki/nidiwa
niduti
nijanu
niku/nikutitii
nimi 430
nipa3
niro/niru
nisi
nisudu
niti
nizuka
nizuuka
nua
nude
nuki/nukisikija 440
numida/numideqe
nupa3ku (extremely common)
nupi
nuqetu
nuti/nutini
nutiuteranata
nutu
nuwi
odami/odamia 450
opi
osuqare
otanize
oteja
pa (common)/paa
pa3katari 460
pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi
paja/pajai
pajare
paka (very common)/paku (very common)/pakuka
pamanuita
panuqe
para
paria
paroda
pasu 470
pata/patu
pa3a/pa3ana
pa3da
pa3dipo
pa3kija
pa3ku
pa3pa3ku
pa3roka
pa3sase
pa3waja 480
pa3qa
panuqe
parane
parosu
pasarija
pase
pasu
pata
patane 490
pia/pii
pija/pijawa
piku/pikui
pikuzu
pimata
pina/pini
pirueju
Pisa
pita/pitaja
pitakase/pitakesi 500

```

## Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 301-400 = KU – NA

```Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 301-400 = KU - NA

kureju
kuro
kuruku
kuruma
kutiti
kutukore
kuzuni
mai/maimi
masaja
majutu
makaise/makaita
makarite
makidete
mana/manapi (common) 320
maniki
manirizu
manuqa 320
maru/maruku/maruri
masa
masi
masuri
matapu
mateti
matiti
matizaite
matu
masuja 330
maza/mazu
meda
medakidi
mepajai
mera
merasasaa/merasasaja (very common)
mesasa
mesenurutu
meto
meturaa 340
meza
mia
midai
midani
midamara
midara
mide
midiu
mie
miima 350
mijanika
mijuke
mikidua
mikisena
minaminapii
minedu
mini/miniduwa
minumi
minute
mio/miowa 360
mipa
mireja
miru
mirutarare
misimiri
misuma
mita
miturea
mujatewi
muko 370
mupi
muru
musaja
naa
naisizamikao 380
naka
nakiki
nakininuta
nakuda
namarasasaja
nmatiti
nami
namikua/namikuda
namine
nanau 390
nanipa3
napa3du
narepirea
naridi
narinarikui
narita
naroka
naru
nasarea
nasekimi 400

```

## Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: the third one hundred = 201-300 = JA – KU

```Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: the third one hundred = 201-300 = JA - KU

jatituku + jatituku
jatoja
jawi
jedi
jeka
jemanata
jua
judu
juerupi
juka 210
juma/jumaku
juraa
jureku
juresa
jutiqa
juu
ka (extremely common)
kae
kai/kaika
kairo
kaji/kaju
kaki/kaku
kakunete
kami
kana
kanatiti
kanau
kanita
kanuti
kapa/kapaqe
kaporu
kapusi
kaqa/kaqe
kara
karona
karu
karunau/karunau 240
kasaru
kasi
kasidizuitanai
kasikidaa
katanite
kati
kaudeta
keire
kekiru
kero
keta/kete
ketesunata
kida/kidi
kidaro
kidata
kidini
kidiora
kii/kiipa
kikiraja 260
kija
kika
kina
kinima/ kinite
kipaa
kipisi (fairly common)
kiqa
kira/kiro/kirisi/kiru
kireta2 270
kiretana
kisusetu
kitai
kite
kitiqa
koiru
koja
kopu
koru
kosaiti 280
kuda
kuja
kujude
kuka
kukudara
kumaju
kumapu
kunisu
kupa/kupi
kupa3natu
kupa3nu
kupa3pa3
kupa3rija
kupaja
kupari
kupazu
kura/kuramu
kurasaqa
kureda 300

```

## Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: the second one hundred = 101-200 = DI – JA

```Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: the second one hundred = 101-200 = DI - JA

This is the most comprehensive Linear A Lexicon ever published on the Internet.

This lexicon comprises all of the intact words in John G. Younger’s Linear A Reverse Lexicon (which is far from comprehensive) plus every last intact word on every single tablet or fragment at his site, wherever any of the latter are not found in the former. By my count, there are 903 words, though I may have made the occasional error in addition, since I had to subtract some repetitive words and add others from the tablets, which are not in the Linear A Reverse Lexicon. Although Prof. John G. Younger has tallied some 903 Linear A words on his site, Linear A Texts in phonetic transcription, his actual lexicon is far from complete. Consequently, it has been necessary for me to draw all of the intact Linear words from every last Linear A tablet and fragment on Prof. Younger’s site. The difficulty here is that his lexicon includes even those Linear A words containing unknown syllabograms, many of which are assigned numeric values only, e.g. *309 *318 *319 *346-348 etc. And there are a number of them. The problem with all of these syllabograms is that no one knows what their phonetic values are. So it goes without saying that every last Minoan Linear A word which contains even one of these unknown syllabograms should, properly speaking, be disqualified. Moreover, there is  redundancy in some of the vocabulary, since quite a few Linear A words on his site are simply variants of one another. To cite just a few examples, we have: daka/daki/daku/dakuna; maru/maruku/maruri; nesa, nesaki, nesakimi; and tami, tamia, tamisi. Consequently, I have also eliminated all of the variants on any given term. This leaves us with a remaindered total of 903, exclusive of onomastics (personal names) and topomastics (place names).

Words which are apparent variants of one another are listed as one entry, e.g.

daka/daki/daku/dakuna
dakusenete(ti)
kira/kiro/kirisi/kiru
maru/maruku/maruri
merasasaa/merasasaja
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi
piku/pikui/pikuzu
reda/redamija/redana/redasi
saro/saru/sarutu
tami/tamia/tamisi
zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea

The following entries have been deliberately omitted:
1. Words containing any syllabograms which are either partially or wholly numeric, since we do not know what the phonetic values of these syllabograms are.
2. Strings of syllabograms > than 15 characters.

NOTE: I have already deciphered well over 200 Linear A words, but none of these are tagged in this comprehensive Linear A Lexicon. I shall be posting my decipherments at a later date.

dipa3a
diqise
dirasa
diredina
dirina
diru
disa
disipita
ditajaru
du/dua 110
duja
dumaina
dumedi
dunawi
dupa3na
dupu3re
dura2
durare
duratiqe
durezase 120
dusi/dusini
dusima
dusu
duti
duwi
duzu
edamisa
eka
epa3
ero 130
esija
ezusiqe
ia
Ida/Idaa
idapa3
idamate/idamete
idarea
idunesi
iduti 140
ijapame
ika
ikesedesute
ikurina
ikuta
ima
imeti
inajapaqa
ipinama
ira2
iruja
isari
ise
itaja
itaki
itijukui
itinisa
ititikuna 160
izurinita
jaa
jai
jaiterikisu
jaitose 170
jainwaza
jaja
jakisikinu
jako/jaku/jakute
jamaa
jami/jamidare
januti
japametu
japarajase 180
japanidami
jara2qe
jare/jaremi
jarepu2
jarete
jari/jarina/jarinu
jaripa3ku
jarisapa
jaru/jarui
jasaraanane 190
jasaja
jasapai
jasamu
jasasarame
jasea
jasepa
jasie
jasumatu
jata/jatai/jatapi
jate/jateo 200

```

## Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: the first one hundred = 1-100 = A – DI

```Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: the first one hundred = 1-100 = A - DI

This is the most comprehensive Linear A Lexicon ever published on the Internet.

This lexicon comprises all of the intact words in John G. Younger’s Linear A Reverse Lexicon (which is far from comprehensive) plus every last intact word on every single tablet or fragment at his site, wherever any of the latter are not found in the former. By my count, there are 903 words, though I may have made the occasional error in addition, since I had to subtract some repetitive words and add others from the tablets, which are not in the Linear A Reverse Lexicon. Although Prof. John G. Younger has tallied some 903 Linear A words on his site, Linear A Texts in phonetic transcription, his actual lexicon is far from complete. Consequently, it has been necessary for me to draw all of the intact Linear words from every last Linear A tablet and fragment on Prof. Younger’s site. The difficulty here is that his lexicon includes even those Linear A words containing unknown syllabograms, many of which are assigned numeric values only, e.g. *309 *318 *319 *346-348 etc. And there are a number of them. The problem with all of these syllabograms is that no one knows what their phonetic values are. So it goes without saying that every last Minoan Linear A word which contains even one of these unknown syllabograms should, properly speaking, be disqualified. Moreover, there is  redundancy in some of the vocabulary, since quite a few Linear A words on his site are simply variants of one another. To cite just a few examples, we have: daka/daki/daku/dakuna; maru/maruku/maruri; nesa, nesaki, nesakimi; and tami, tamia, tamisi. Consequently, I have also eliminated all of the variants on any given term. This leaves us with a remaindered total of 903, exclusive of onomastics (personal names) and topomastics (place names).

Words which are apparent variants of one another are listed as one entry, e.g.

daka/daki/daku/dakuna
dakusenete(ti)
kira/kiro/kirisi/kiru
maru/maruku/maruri
merasasaa/merasasaja
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi
piku/pikui/pikuzu
reda/redamija/redana/redasi
saro/saru/sarutu
tami/tamia/tamisi
zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea

The following entries have been deliberately omitted:
1. Words containing any syllabograms which are either partially or wholly numeric, since we do not know what the phonetic values of these syllabograms are.
2. Strings of syllabograms > than 15 characters.

NOTE: I have already deciphered well over 200 Linear A words, but none of these are tagged in this comprehensive Linear A Lexicon. I shall be posting my decipherments at a later date.

a
ajesa
aju
akaru
akanuzati  10
aki
akipiete
akumina
ama
amaja
amidao/amidau
amita
ana
anatu
anau 20
anepiti
aparane
apaki
api
araju
aranare
aratu
arauda
aredai
arepirena 30
aresana
ari/arinita
aripa
arisu
arote
aru/arudara
aruma
arura
asamune
asara2/asararame 40
asasumaise
ase/asi
aseja
asidatoi
asijaka
asikira
asisupoa
asuja
asupuwa 50
atanate
atare
ati
atika
atiru
aurete
awapi
azura
daa
daku/dakuna
dai/daina
daipita
dajute
daka/daki/daku/dakuna/dakusene(ti)
dami/daminu
dame/damate 70
danasi
danekuti
daqaqa
dare
darida
daqera
darunete
daserate
datapa
datara/datare/datu 80
dea
deauwase
dedi
dejuku
demirirema
depa/depu
deripa
detaa
dide/didi
dideru 90
didikase/didikaze
dii
dija/dije
dika
dikime
dikise
dima
dimedu
dinaro
dinau 100

```

## Archaeology of the Minoan Cemetery at Pacheia Ammos Crete

The American archaeologist Richard Seager excavated the cemetery at Pacheia Ammos in East Crete over a total of seven weeks during 1914 and 1915.  The burials were concentrated some 20 meters from the present shoreline and 150 meters east-west along the beach. The burials were found at various depths from within 20 centimeters of the surface to 2.50 meters below.

During the excavation Seager found about half the burial jars sitting in the seawater, from which he concluded that the shoreline had subsided somewhat since Minoan times. Multiple burials, mostly three to five in number, were often found clustered in groups ( 14 in all ). Containers, mostly pithoi, were in many cases reused , probably from domestic contexts.

An example of a Minoan pot burial with skeleton.

Middle Minoan llA-B Conical cup

.Excavation produced fragments of skeletal material , 213 burial jars and 6 larnakes (burial coffins) as well as 20 cups…

View original post 255 more words

## Minoan Linear A tablet HT 14 (Haghia Triada) almost completely deciphered + the 4 categories of Linear A tablets

```Minoan Linear A tablet HT 14 (Haghia Triada) almost completely deciphered + the 4 categories of Linear A tablets:

Here you see Minoan Linear A tablet HT 14 (Haghia Triada), which I have been able to decipher almost completely. This is because the tablet is comprised mostly of ideograms, making it much easier to reconstruct the original text. In addition, I have already translated the supersyllabogram TE = tereza (on the first line) as being a large unit of liquid measurement, which in the case of wine might be something like “a flask”,  “a jug” or something along the lines of  “a gallon”, on the explicit understanding that there was no such thing as a gallon in Minoan times; this is merely an approximation.  The supersyllabograms PU & DI are unknown, i.e. indecipherable, at least to date. Likewise, the Old Minoan word, apu2nadu (apunaidu) is also unknown, but it might mean  “harvest”. The units of wheat are probably equivalent to something like a bushel. The supersyllabogram MI = mini signifies  “for a month” (dative) or “monthly”, and is New Minoan, i.e. a word of Mycenaean origin superimposed on Linear A.

The rest of the decipherment is self-explanatory.

Decipherment of Minoan Linear A tablets falls into four (4) categories:

1. Tablets on which we find only Old Minoan words, or on which the vast majority of words are Old Minoan. These tablets are pretty much indecipherable.
2. Tablets on which we find a combination of Old Minoan and New Minoan (words of Mycenaean origin). The more New Minoan words on a tablet, the more likely we are going to be able to decipher it. Ideally, there should be more New Minoan (Mycenaean) words than Old Minoan (the original Minoan substratum), in order to divine the meanings of Old Minoan words immediately adjacent to New Minoan words. This is of course contextual analysis. Such tablets are at least partially decipherable.
3. Linear A tablets containing ideograms almost exclusively are susceptible to decipherment. HT 14 (Haghia Triada) falls into this category.
4. A very few Linear A tablets are written mostly, almost entirely and in one case only, entirely in New Minoan (the Mycenaean superstratum). These tablets can be be mostly and in some cases entirely deciphered.

```

## Proto-Greek or Mycenaean kiritai = “barley” on Minoan Linear A tablet HT 114 (Haghia Triada)

Proto-Greek or Mycenaean kiritai = barley on Minoan Linear A tablet HT 114 (Haghia Triada):

Like many other Linear A tablets, HT 114 (Haghia Triada) does not appear to be inscribed only in the Minoan language. The proto-Greek or, more accurately, the Mycenaean word, kirita2 (kiritai), which means barley and which is almost exactly equivalent to Linear B, kirita, meaning the very same thing, appears on the very first line of this tablet. The only difference is that the Linear A word, kiritai, is plural, whereas the Linear B, kirita, is singular, as we can see here:

While the rest of HT 114 is inscribed in Minoan, the appearance of this one Mycenaean word gives pause. Was Linear A the syllabary of proto-Greek or of Mycenaean Greek just before the advent of the new official syllabary, Linear B? The fact is that it was not. However, this does not mean that there was not proto-Greek or Mycenaean vocabulary on Linear A tablets. How can this be, when the language itself is not proto-Greek?

The phenomenon of the superimposition of a superstratum of vocabulary from a source language (Mycenaean in the case of Linear A) onto a target language (Minoan), is historically not unique to the Minoan language. A strikingly similar event occurred in English with the conquest of England by William the Conqueror in 1066 AD. Before that date, the only English was Anglo-Saxon. This is what is called Old English. But after conquest of England in 1066 AD, over 10,000 Norman French words streamed into the language between 1100 and 1450 AD, altering the landscape of English vocabulary almost beyond recognition. In fact, believe it or not, only 26 % of English vocabulary is Germanic versus 29 % is French, 29 % Latin and 6 % Greek. So the latter 3 languages, amounting to 64 % of the entire English lexicon, have completely overshadowed the Old English (Anglo-Saxon) Germanic vocabulary, as illustrated in this Figure:

This phenomenon is unique to English alone among all of the Germanic languages. While the grammar and syntax of English is Germanic, the great majority of its vocabulary is not. A strikingly similar event appears to have occurred when the Mycenaeans conquered Knossos, is dependencies and Crete ca. 1500 – 1450 BCE. Just as the Norman French superstratum has imposed itself on Old English, giving rise to Middle and Modern English, Mycenaean Greek operated in much the same fashion when it superimposed itself on Old Minoan, leading to New Minoan vocabulary, which is proto-Greek or Mycenaean. I have already isolated no fewer than 150 proto-Greek or Mycenaean words out of 510 intact words (by my own arbitrary count) in the Linear A lexicon. Again, while the Minoan language itself is not proto-Greek in its grammar and syntax, but is of another, to date still unknown, origin, a large portion of its vocabulary is not Old Minoan, but instead proto-Greek or Mycenaean, as I shall demonstrate in no uncertain terms in my decipherments of numerous Linear A tablets to follow this one. One striking feature of New Minoan is this: the percentage of proto-Greek or Mycenaean vocabulary in Linear B comes to 29 %, precisely the same level as Norman French in English. Although this is sheer co-incidence, it is quite intriguing.

## New website for: Richard Vallance (academia.edu) here

```New website for: Richard Vallance (academia.edu) here:

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