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Spice from 11 boughs of a terebinth tree (Knossos Tablet KN 1530 R t 01)… rather romantic.


Spice from 11 boughs of a terebinth tree (Knossos Tablet KN 1530 R t 01)… rather romantic.


Spice from 11 boughs of a terebinth tree (Knossos Tablet KN 1530 R t 01)... rather romantic Click to ENLARGE:

KN 1530 R t 01 illegible

In my valiant, though not necessarily entirely successful, attempt to recover syllagograms and lost text from at least some of Knossos Tablet KN 1530 R t 01, a badly damaged Linear B Tablet, I have taken my cue from Andras Zeke and his splendid blog, the Minoan Language Blog, which unfortunately has been mysteriously idle ever since September 2012. For some reason unknown to me, Andras Zeke has simply disappeared from the scene, and his disappearance is a terrible loss to the research community devoted to the eventual decipherment of Linear A, in which he was making considerable headway. The Minoan Language Blog is also an excellent source for the advancement of the further decipherment of those areas of Linear B, which have to date defied decipherment. I strongly recommend this blog to anyone involved in any capacity in research into Linear A or Linear B.

There are several instances of (some seriously) damaged Linear A tablets on the Minoan Language Blog, which Andras Zeke has valiantly attempted to restore, usually with a remarkable degree of success, as illustrated for instance by this consummate restoration of a Linear A tablet which he effected (Click to jump to the entry for this tablet in the Minoan Language Blog:

Minoan-accounting-tablet-fractions

I cannot claim to have achieved anywhere near the proficiency Andras Zeke has mastered in recovering lost portions of damaged tablets, but I have made my best efforts to fill in at least some of the gaps on Knossos Tablet KN 1530 R t 01, much of which has been effaced beyond restoration.

Perhaps the single factor which lends some credence to my so-called “decipherment” is that it hangs together, that it is somehow coherent, all the retrieved parts matching up like the pieces in a jigsaw puzzle. This does not mean that my partial translation is in any sense of the word the “right” one, whatever that is supposed to mean, any more than it is any conceivable variant on the “wrong” ones. It is just the decipherment I was able to pull from the ashes, whatever its supposed merits. I invite any and all researchers/accomplished translators of Linear B to come up with their own versions of “decipherments” of this intriguing tablet, however much they may be at variance with my own.

Richard


Examples of 2 Site-specific Linear B Tablets from Knossos Dealing with Sheep, Rams & Ewes

Here are 2 of the 503 Linear B tablets dealing specifically sheep, rams and uses, from the huge cross-section of 2,500 Linear B tablets at Knossos which I closely examined for content. They serve as fine illustrations of the 138 site-specific tablets and fragments which I further isolated from the 503 overall dealing with sheep in general.

First, we have Linear B tablet KN 934 G y 201, which references sheep, rams and ewes at EKOSO, Exonos, the sheep raising locale accounting for 15 or 10.9 % of the 138 Linear B tablets I examined dealing with sheep, rams and ewes. This sets the incidence for the number of times a specific locale for sheep husbandry at second place for Exonos, behind Kytaistos, Phaistos Lykinthos, each of which accounts for 20 tablets and fragments, at 14.49 %. So we can rest assured that, apart from Knossos, which was, as we pointed out in the previous post, the default locale, Exonos still plays an important rôle in sheep raising.

Linear B tablet KN 934 G y 201 (Click to ENLARGE):

Knossos Tablet KN 934 G y 201 sheep  Exonos

Next comes Linear B tablet KN 1342 E k 321, which is even more significant, as it centres on Phaistos, one of the three first place contenders for site-specific statistics on sheep husbandry, weighing in as it does 20 times or 14.49 % of the 138 tablets on sheep which are site-specific, out of a total of 503 tablets dealing with sheep in general. This leaves 356 tablets which are apparently not site-specific, although it is positively risky to assume that they are not locale-specific to Knossos itself, a critical issue I discussed at great length in the previous post, and to which I draw your undivided attention, if you are interested in or concerned with the contents of Linear B tablets at all, regardless of provenance.

Linear B tablet KN 1342 E k 321 (Click to ENLARGE):

Knossos Tablet 1342 E k 321 sheep at RATOYO and PAITO

Note that this tablet also references RATOYO (archaic genitive masc. singular), i.e. Lato, as a sheep raising locale, which accounts for 12 or 8.7 % of 138 site-specific tablets dealing with sheep, rams and ewes. This is precisely why I have used this particular tablet to illustrate sheep raising locales, because it, like several other tablets in this sub-set, mentions 2 sites, not just 1 locale, further attesting to the prime significance of sheep husbandry at the very core of the Minoan economy.

Richard


CRITICAL POST: The Minoans counted sheep while they were wide awake… big time!.


CRITICAL POST: The Minoans counted sheep while they were wide awake... big time! 

An In-depth Statistical Analysis and Wide Cross-Section of over 2,500 tablets and fragments out of the approximately 4,000 at Knossos dealing specifically with sheep, rams and ewes.

For the past 4 months, I have been meticulously examining a huge cross-section of 2,503 Linear B tablets & fragments from the approximately 4,000 found at Knossos, representing no less than 62.57 % of that total, a sampling for which the statistical accuracy must be so high as not to exceed 0.5 % +/- margin of error (although I haven not verified this myself). Even with the total of 4,000 tablets and fragments being only a reasonably fair estimate of the total, the statistical accuracy would still be very high, since we are dealing with a total very close to 4,000. Here is the detailed table I compiled with its statistical analysis of the total number of tablets and fragments at Knossos specifically dealing with sheep, rams and ewes (503), as opposed to the total number I examined = 2,503. Click to ENLARGE:

Linear B Tablets Knossos sheep rams ewes

However, not only did I isolate all 503 of the tablets and fragments dealing with sheep, rams and ewes from my cross-section of 2,500 tablets, I also further sub-divided all 503 of these by locales or sites at which the Minoans raised sheep, these being, from most to least often mentioned on the tablets, Kytaistos, Phaistos & Lykinthos (20 times each), for a total of 60; Exonos (15 times); Davos (14); Lato & Syrimos (12), for a total of 24; Lasynthos (9); Sygrita (8); Tylissos or Tylisos (5) and Raia (2), Knossos never being even mentioned at all! What! I here you say... and me too. Come on, this begs the question. 

Hypothesis A: Why not Knossos?... or more to the point, probably Knossos

Why? Why not Knossos? It is patently ridiculous to assume that no sheep were raised at Knossos, since Knossos was a city of a population reputedly exceeding 50,000, an enormous city for the ancient world (aside from Rome, of course). None of the other locales listed in our table come remotely close to Knossos in size or economic power and significance, not even Phaistos. The Minoans had to have raised sheep at Knossos, of that there can be no doubt. But how many of the overall 503 tablets mentioning sheep, rams and ewes can be said to deal with Knossos?  Although we could ideally postulate a total of 365 times, the remainder of the 503 tablets, this is a highly problematic question, since there is simply no way of knowing whether or not the scribes were referring to Knossos and Knossos alone whenever they omitted to name the locale for sheep husbandry. It seems quite conceivable, even reasonable, to assume that the majority of the remaining 365 tablets and fragments, or at least most of them, do deal specifically with Knossos, but there is really no real way of our ever knowing.

However, there is one tell-tale statistic which may serve as a real clue to the incidence of sheep raising at Knossos, and that is the figure for the number of times Tylissos is mentioned, i.e. only 5 times, even though Tylissos was an important Minoan site. The point I am making here is simply this: Tylissos was right next door to Knossos, practically an outskirt of the city. So if Tylissos is mentioned less often than every other sheep raising locale, with the sole exception of Raya (3 times), then were were the sheep being raised near or at Knossos?  The answer seems transparent enough. At Knossos itself, or at least in the countryside surrounding Knossos, which would almost (but not quite) include Tylissos. So this is my hypothesis, namely, that in all probability most of the remaining 365 tablets and fragments do deal with Knossos, since as I have already said, it is patently impossible that Knossos was not the major sheep raising locale in the Minoan agri-economy.

Hypothesis B: Why not Knossos?... or more to the point, probably Knossos

There is another angle from which we may approach my assumption. Let’s say I am talking about my own garden (today, in the twenty-first century). Now since my own garden is right here in the city I live in, what is the point of saying “my garden in Ottawa” to other folks from Ottawa, since they already know that? The only time it would be necessary to refer to “my garden in Ottawa” would be when I was showing my garden at the cottage to my friends, and I wished to distinguish it from my other garden in Ottawa. Likewise, if I am referring to my mother’s garden, which happens to be in Toronto, while speaking to friends in Ottawa, I have to say “my mother’s garden in Toronto”, unless they all already know that. You see my point.

By analogy, if scribes, all of whom lived in Knossos, were referring to sheep husbandry at Knossos, why would they bother mentioning the city as such, since they would have been sharing this information with their fellow scribes and literate administrators in Knossos itself. On the other hand, if they had to refer to sheep raising absolutely anywhere else, even at Tylissos, which was not quite at Knossos, they would have had to mention the site by name; otherwise, their fellow scribes and co-literates would have had no idea where the sheep were being raised, which defeats the whole point of inventorying or compiling such statistics in the first place. Remember that the Minoan scribes writing in Linear B (not Linear A) were space-saving freaks, to say the least, since the tablets were usually very small. So by not mentioning Knossos as a sheep raising locale, since they lived there after all, they saved precious space on their tablets... yet another reason why Knossos was in fact never mentioned. Anyway, people are lazy by nature, and would rather not do any work they can avoid. So either they would have mentioned Knossos all the time, however many times it would have been the default locale for sheep raising (because, in fact, Knossos was the default location for sheep husbandry) on those remaining 365 tablets, or they would not have mentioned it all. We know of course they did not. All of this is speculation, of course, but it is rational speculation, I dare say.

Hypothesis C: Why not Knossos?... or more to the point, probably Knossos

And, believe it or not, there is yet another way to approach this hypothesis, and this approach is in fact purely statistical. Whenever we are confronted with a tablet or fragment from any of the other sheep raising locales specifically inventoried in the table above, when we examine the tablet for the total number of sheep raised at any one of these locales, we discover (and this is very significant) that nowhere are more than a few hundred sheep, rams or ewes mentioned on these site-specific tablets and fragments. The reason for this is probably that there was not enough available land at these sites to raise more than a few hundred sheep at a time.

On the other hand — and I must lay particular emphasis on this point — on several of the remaining 365 tablets or fragments, 1,000s or even 10s of 1,000s of sheep are tallied. Now where on earth except at Knossos would there be enough room to accommodate so many blasted sheep? I think I have made my point.

I can see some of you object (some perhaps even loudly), how could any place, even Knossos, have enough room in the surrounding countryside to accommodate almost as many or even more sheep than the general population of the city, without stripping the top soil bare, causing irreparable environmental damage and making one stinky countryside? It is hard to counter such an objection, which is entirely rational on any count. Still, we do not know whether the Minoans practised land rotation. However, given that their civilization was so advanced and sophisticated, with their basic grasp and sound implementation of the principles of hydrology to city plumbing never again to be matched until the end of the 19th. century of our era (!), it begs the question whether or not they were familiar with, and indeed practised land rotation for sheep grazing. I for one would be willing to bet at least 50/50 that they did... a practice which would have effectively preserved available grazing land, and made Knossos a perfectly suitable place to raise sheep, and scads of them.

But there is still more. Of the 2,503 tablets and fragments from Knossos I examined, those dealing specifically with sheep, rams and ewes account for fully 20.12 % of every last tablet, regardless of the area of interest in the Minoan society, economy, social structure, religious affairs etc. any and all of the remaining tablets deal with. This is a huge sub-set of all the tablets, and in fact, when you examine a cross-section of as many as 2,503 tablets of approximately 4,000, as I have done, you will discover, perhaps to your astonishment, perhaps not, that no other single area of interest or topic, if you like, in Minoan society comes anywhere even close to the number of times sheep, rams and ewes are specifically and almost always solely addressed on such tablets or fragments, i.e. 503 times. This speaks to the one area that literally grabs centre stage in the Minoan socio-economic and trade structure. It all boils down to one thing: the Minoan economy by-and-large revolved around sheep raising and husbandry, and the products which derived from it, such as wool, which also accounts for a fairly significant proportion of the remaining 3,500 tablets (though far from the numbers for sheep per se). Although there can be no denying that other areas of interest, such as raising pigs and other livestock, various crafts such as gem cutting, jewelry etc., religious issues, military matters, household affairs and so on, played a significant role in the Minoan economy and in their society, there can be no denying that sheep raising and husbandry was the keystone of their economy. There is simply no way of getting around this conclusion, given the fact that the cold, bare statistics practically shout this at us.  Of course, many of you will object, statistics aren’t everything, or even all that reliable as an indicator of anything, for that matter. And of course, you would be right... except for one big thorn in our side, namely, the fact that statistics for the number of fragments and tablets dealing specifically with sheep, rams and ewes is so huge (20.12 %) that it could very well make the objections of our doubting Thomases almost irrelevant. I have not yet formally compiled statistics for the incidence of tablets and fragments dealing with any other aspect of Minoan life whatsoever, but I can assure that, even on examining all of these tablets quite closely, no other area of interest whatsoever comes even remotely close to the overwhelming figure of 503 tablets or fragments specifically focusing on sheep, rams and ewes (20.12 %), accounting for fully 1/5 of all 2,503 tablets and fragments I examined.

The next post will provide us with two examples of the 138/503 site-specific Linear B tablets dealing with sheep, rams and ewes.
  
Richard


Wisconsin stone tablet unearthed.


Wisconsin stone tablet unearthed..

Wisconsin stone tablet unearthed.


Can anyone interpret this tablet?

I have other artifacts from this small site.tablet


Photo of the Labrys or double Axe Fresco at Mycenae I took in May 2012 & description of the same by Sir Athur Evans in Scripta Minoa:

Click to ENLARGE:

pottery and shield of the Labrys or Double Axe, Museum Mycenae May 3 2012

The Labrys or Double Axe was common to both Mycenae and Knossos, and indeed there is a large room of the Double Axes which I saw when I was there in May 2012.  

Click to ENLARGE:

description of Labrys or double axe from Scripta Minoa Sir Arthur Evans

The text of this entry in Scripta Minoa is really fascinating. This statement in particular caught my eye.

The diameter of this huge labrys (double axe) is 7 MC (1.20 m.). the 7 and especially 7-1, have been used in the geometry of many ancient monuments (see, for example, the geometry of the Parthenon and Stonehenge.)    

Richard


2 impressive photos of the entrance to the famous Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae I took in May 2012.


2 impressive photos of the entrance to the famous Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae I took in May 2012:

Click to ENLARGE:

Treasury of Atreus b

Click to ENLARGE:

Treasury of Atreus a

Richard


2 photos of goddesses & pottery in the museum at Mycenae I took in May 2012:

Click to ENLARGE:

These are of the Mycenaean Earth goddess, possibly also called Pipituna, and possibly equivalent to Erinu = Erinys mentioned in Knossos fragment KN 390J f 21, ERINU, the Avenging Deity:

Mycenaean Earth Goddesses Mycenae Museum May 3 2012


Click to ENLARGE:

Mycenaean pottery pitchers and bowls, Mycenae Museum May 3 2012

Mycenaean pottery, pitchers and bowls

Richard

2 photos of goddesses & pottery in the museum at Mycenae I took in May 2012:

Click to ENLARGE:

Mycenaean Earth Goddesses Mycenae Museum May 3 2012

These are of the Mycenaean Earth goddess, possibly also called Pipituna, and possibly equivalent to Erinu = Erinys mentioned in Knossos fragment KN 390J f 21, ERINU, the Avenging Deity, here:

https://linearbknossosmycenae.wordpress.com/2014/07/29/knossos-tablet-kn-390-j-f-21-erinu-the-avenging-deity-is-she-the-minoan-snake-goddess/   

Click to ENLARGE:

Mycenaean pottery pitchers and bowls, Mycenae Museum May 3 2012

Mycenaean pottery, pitchers and bowls

Richard

2 photos of Frescoes at Mycenae I took in May 2012:

Click to ENLARGE:

fresco horses and cavalry museum Mycenae May 3 2012

Click to ENLARGE:

Mycenaean Fresco of priestess and acolyte, Mycenae Museum May 3 2012

Richard



2 sweeping photos of Mycenae I took in May 2012:

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View of rhe famous acropolis of Mycenae May 2012)

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at the summit of Mycenae acropolis with famous mountain May 2012

Richard


2 more beautiful photos I took of famous frescos at Knossos in May 2012!

Click to ENLARGE:

MINOLTA DIGITAL CAMERA

The simply stunning Griffin Fresco in the Throne Room of the Queen's Megaron. To my mind, this is one of the loveliest of all Minoan frescoes, if not one of the loveliest frescos in the entire history of art. I think it is. 

Click to ENLARGE:

Octopus Fresco Knossos May 2012

The Octopus Fresco, another amazing work of art. There is humour in this one, a trait found in more than just a few works of Minoan art and craftsmanship, as in pottery as well. 

Richard

2 more beautiful photos I took of famous frescoes at Knossos in May 2012!

Click to ENLARGE:

MINOLTA DIGITAL CAMERA

The simply stunning Griffin Fresco in the Throne Room of the Queen's Megaron. To my mind, this is one of the loveliest of all Minoan frescoes, if not one of the loveliest frescos in the entire history of art. I think it is. 

Click to ENLARGE:

Octopus Fresco Knossos May 2012

The Octopus Fresco, another amazing work of art. There is humour in this one, a trait found in more than just a few works of Minoan art and craftsmanship, as in pottery as well. 

Richard


Some beautiful photos I took of famous frescos at Knossos in May 2012!.


Some beautiful photos I took of famous frescos at Knossos in May 2012!

Click to ENLARGE:

Bull fresco Knossos May 2012

The famous bull leaping fresco.

Click to ENLARGE:

Knossos Spectators Fresco Bull Leaping May 2012

The famous spectators fresco, folks probably watching bull leaping. I love this one!

Richard


Linear B Basic Values & the 13 Supersyllabograms (Click to ENLARGE):

Linear B syllabary basic values with supersyllabograms



This table is a modified version of the Linear B Basic Values table, with which many of you are already familiar. I have flagged in green font all 13 of the supersyllabograms isolated so far. There may be more, and there probably are. Complementing the supersyllabograms are the meanings, some of them firm, some of them likely to be correct, and others putative (at best).

You should keep this table on hand if you are at all interested in learning supersyllabograms.
All of the supersyllabograms have been fully illustrated by tablets bearing them in previous posts, so if you are serious about actually mastering sypersyllabograms yourself, you probably should read all of these posts, infra.

Richard

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