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Progressive Linear B: Vocabulary (M-Z) Level 3.2 (Intermediary)
Here is the vocabulary for Progressive Linear B Level 3.2 (Intermediary) CLICK TO ENLARGE:
It is imperative that you read the notes at the end of this vocabulary, if you wish to gain a sufficient grasp of the problems and hurdles I must frequently face in compiling each and every one of our vocabulary lists, as we progress through Level 1 (Basic) to Level 5 (Advanced), since various anomalies and bizarre interpretations of the meanings of many Linear B words keep popping up. Of particular concern to me is this: the popular and heavily consulted Mycenaean (Linear B) – ENGLISH Glossary in PDF format, widely available on the internet, has numerous errors in it. Some are errors in the syllabogrammatic version of words, hence also in their latinized equivalents, as in entry 16 (POROEKETERIYA) or in ambiguous or plausibly inaccurate translations of words, as in entries 5, 16 (again) & 37 of this vocabulary list in particular. In the case of entry 16 I am unable to reconcile the obvious spelling error with the correct spelling of the Linear B, without recourse to the tablets, but according to standard spelling conventions for Linear B, the prefix should in fact be PORO (See notes at the bottom of the vocabulary for the Linear B) .
Progressive Linear B: Vocabulary A-K, Level 3.2 (Intermediary):
It is of utmost importance that you read all the NOTES at the end of this vocabulary of 39 words, which is comprised of (far from all) the words from A-K in the Linear B vocabulary at Level 3.2 (Intermediate). The NOTES in this post and all others subsequent to it which deal specifically with Linear B vocabulary presuppose some familiarity with Linear B grammar, and may entail some discussion of its numerous applications, as we progress deeper and deeper into Mycenaean Linear B. Without a firm grasp of at least elemental Mycenaean Greek grammar, some of the new vocabulary I will be introducing will be more difficult to grasp, if not downright arcane.
Can I still master all of the most important Linear B syllabograms, even if I do not know much ancient Greek?
The short answer is, “yes”, albeit with some critical caveats.
For those of you who are learning Linear B vocabulary and grammar on our Blog, and who have not yet learned ancient Greek grammar, do not despair (or panic, for that matter), because the important thing for you is to learn as much of Linear B as you can readily grasp, and no more. In other words, what I am saying is this: even if you are not familiar with ancient Greek, or even if you cannot understand some of the more complex grammatical forms of ancient Greek, such as the proliferation of participles and arcane cases like the optative, it won’t really matter much in the long run, since your goal is to be able to translate as many Linear B tablets as you can, without being obliged to having recourse to ancient Greek grammar. Believe me, even if you do not know much ancient Greek, you will be able to translate quite a few Linear B tablets. It matters even less when we consider that as you progress in your studies of Linear B vocabulary and grammar, you will in fact be learning the fundamentals of ancient Greek grammar, by which I mean very ancient. There can be no Greek more ancient than Mycenaean. So once you have mastered at least the fundamentals of Mycenaean Linear B, you will, if you like, be in a position to move on to learning classical ancient Greek, and it will be a lot easier for you to do this than if you had never learned Linear B to begin with. But that is another bridge to cross, and we’ll do just that, cross it later.
In the meantime, allow me to assure you that our approach to learning Linear B, based on the principles and practical implementation of my new Theory of Progressive Linear B, will enable you to learn everything you need to know about Linear B gammar and vocabulary, but were afraid to ask. Yes, you will be enabled. That is what Progressive Linear B’s theoretical approach and application to the learning of Mycenaean Linear B is all about.
Of course, those of you who are familiar or expert with ancient Greek will be in the enviable position to be able to translate practically all of the extant Linear B tablets, though not without numerous hurdles and snags along the way, some of them formidable.
CLICK TO ENLARGE:
THEORY 2.3.1:Correlation in Progressive Reconstruction of Linear B Grammar: Present Tense Active of Verbs in KEE: Having Applied the Principle of Regressive Extrapolation from the Ionic/Attic conjugation of e1xein to the same Mycenaean verb, EKEE, we are in the position to conjugate the present tense of most Linear B verbs, of which the stem of the present infinitive * ends with KEE, since almost all verbs of this class must be conjugated exactly the same way as EKEE. This we achieve by correlating the conjugation of almost all Linear B verbs of which the stem of the present infinitive ends with KEE with the conjugation of our paradigm verb, EKEE. This hypothesis is borne out by the correlation of the conjugation of the Mycenaean verb AKEE (Ionic/Attic a1gein), to lead, guide, with that of our paradigm verb, EKEE, to have: Any regular verb ending in KEE, for which the conjugation of the present tense active is derived from and identical to that of the paradigm verb, EKEE, I call a correlative verb. Hence, AKEE is a correlative verb. Theory 18.104.22.168: Corollary As a corollary to Theory 3.3.1, we may safely assume that the conjugation of the paradigm verb (EKEE) and that of any derived, correlative verb, regardless of the verb and regardless of its attested or derivative forms, must be identical. In other words, once we have established the conjugation of the paradigm verb, EKEE, it makes no difference whatsoever whether or not any of its correlative verbs has only some of the attested forms present in the paradigm verb. A rose is a rose is a rose. Thus, the conjugation of any correlative verb must be the same as that of the paradigm verb, even if the correlative verb has only one attested form. I shall soon carry this principle even further. Those of you familiar with Linear B should readily deduce what the next is in the Principle of Correlation. Irregular verbs ending KEE are not susceptible to the principle of correlation. In the next post, I shall display a Table of Present Infinitives ending in KEE for attested verbs found on Linear B tablets (to the best of my knowledge). NOTES: * In Ancient Greek, the infinitive can be in the present, future aorist (simple past) or perfect tense, although in reality the tense of the Greek infinitive has little or nothing to do with time, but with aspect, a peculiarly Greek phenomenon, which I am not defining for the moment, for fear of confusing those of you unfamiliar with ancient Greek. ** The ultima is the last syllable of a word. The penult (penultimate) is the next to last syllable of a word, i.e. the second syllable before the end of a word. The antepenult (antepenultimate) is the next to next last syllable of a word, i.e. the third syllable before the end of a word.
NOTE: this Blog is now classified by Categories!
Now that our blog is classified by separate CATEGORIES, you have the option of searching only those POSTS in the category you are interested in, thereby skipping posts in all the other categories, which are NOT relevant to your present needs or interests.
All of the categories appear as dark teal buttons immediately above the most recent post.
These Categories are:
Decipherment of Linear B, LESSONS Linear B (subcategories Knossos & Mycenae), Linear B, Linear B Tablets, Linear B LINKS, Michael Ventris and Progressive Linear B. The two most important categories are LESSONS Linear B and Progressive Linear B. POSTS related to the Decipherment of Linear B in general are in the category Decipherment of Linear B, except for posts on Michael Ventris himself, including his greatest achievement, which was the decipherment of Linear B in June & July 1952, the latter falling under the category Michael Ventris.
Since its development and eventual summation are the central focus of this blog, the category Progressive Linear B is crucial to all those familiar with Linear B, who wish to benefit from the theoretical foundations of my new theory of Linear B.
The category, Linear B LINKS will connect you to all links to major Linear B blogs and sites, research, the practical applications and online sources for Linear B. Knossos & Mycenae are subcategories under the main heading Linear B. You need to hover over the category Linear B to access these 2 subcategories. Simply move your mouse or stylus down to either Knossos or Mycenae and selecting the one that interests you.
WARNING! If you do not click on the specific Category you are interested in, you will see ALL the posts on this blog, regardless of category, indiscriminately, from the most recent post retroactively to the first post on the blog. That can be rather messy!
To view this post click on the first dark teal button on the LEFT, “Blog Guide” above the latest post.
Pylos Tablet TA 641-1952 (Ventris) with Linear B FONT (CLICK to enlarge):
This is the very first Linear B tablet deciphered by Michael Ventris in 1952. So in honour of his name as a superb linguist and genius of the first order, I now present you with a totally new version of this historic tablet, which I have reformatted for the greatest possible clarity, with the intention to make this tablet all the more accessible to students of Linear B who wish to translate a tablet into English. It should come as no surprise that of all the extant Linear B tablets, this is the one most often translated.
I will be providing a complete translation of Pylos tablet TA 641-1952 later this month.
Thank you. Richard
LESSONS: Level 3 (Intermediate) Vocabulary: Level 3.1:
Progressive Linear B Vocabulary: Level 3.1 (Intermediate). Since there are 4 sub-levels at Level 3, our selective vocabulary will increase by at least 100 words at this level. (CLICK to enlarge):
Since there are far more words at Level 3 in the Linear B glossaries on the Internet than are reflected in this table, it would be impractical and utterly pointless to list even the majority of them, without overwhelming you, if you are a student of Linear B at the Intermediate Level. On the other hand, by the time you reach the end of Level 3, you will have mastered ALL of the 59 basic syllabograms, as well as some of the more important homophones. I will define the term “homophone” as it applies to Linear B in the next post.
The standard dictionary definition of a “homophone” does not apply to Mycenaean Linear B. It is necessary to make the clear distinction required to differentiate the notion of “homophone” in Linear B from its generally accepted usage, and to bear this specialized definition of the word in mind at all times in your advancing study of Linear B.
I will be posting a selective vocabulary for the next 3 sub-levels at Level 3: 3.2, 3.3 & 3.4 (Intermediate) throughout this autumn. If you are still at Level 2, it is inadvisable to attempt to proceed to Level 3, since doing so would almost certainly result in information overload, and place far too much stress on you as a student. The most important thing to keep in mind as you progress in your lessons through each Level, from Levels 1 & 2 (Elementary) to Level 3 (Intermediate) and on to Levels 4 & 5 (Advanced) is this: master all the syllabograms and all the vocabulary at each Level before proceeding to the next. Otherwise, you will have great difficulty translating the Linear B Tablets which I will assign to you at the end of each Level, starting with Level 3 (Intermediate). By the end of Level 3, you will be in a solid position to translate a number of major Linear B tablets, including the very first one ever translated in its entirety by the great Michael Ventris in July 1952, viz. Tablet Pylos 641-1952 (Ventris). This tablet is the keystone for reliable translation of subsequent tablets, some of which are easily in the range of the skills you will have already acquired at Level 3. Others, however, are so complex, containing a number of special syllabograms and ideograms (to be defined later) as to require a thorough and minute analysis of the tablets in question.
Final NOTE: if you are now approaching the end of your study of syllabograms at Levels 1 & 2, you have already mastered 53 of the 59 basic syllabograms. But I urge to review your syllabograms and your vocabulary you have already acquired at Levels 1 & 2 (some 200 words) for the rest of this year, since I would very much like to test you on your acquired knowledge at the end of the year, before we proceed to Level 3 in the winter of 2014. And always remember, proceed at your own pace. I am a patient “teacher”, and I am more than willing to tailor all your lessons to your own particular needs and expectations. So take your sweet time, and really enjoy the learning experience. For those of you who have been following our lessons right from the beginning, even if you feel you are not yet quite ready to proceed to Level 3 in January 2014, so be it. We will take the next step, or perhaps we might say, leap, to Level 3 when you are ready, and not before.
And for those of you who are visiting our Blog for the first few times, and have it in mind that you would really like to learn Linear B, once again, we’ll start right from scratch, and I promise you that I will keep pace with your learning curve, rather than expect you to follow mine, which would be patently unfair to you as a student. As a matter of fact, I estimate that it would take around two years for any of us to master enough Linear B to be able to competently translate most the the largely intact extant Linear B Tablets. I say “largely intact”, since the vast majority of the some 5,900 Tablets already unearthed are (extremely) fragmented at best, while some are so fragmented that they are for all intents and purposes illegible.
THEORY 2.2: The Principle of Regressive Extrapolation in Progressive Reconstruction of Linear B Grammar: Theory into Practice: Applying the Principle of Regressive Extrapolation from the Ionic/Attic conjugation, we simply (or rather not so simply) extrapolate what we believe to have been the most likely equivalent forms in Mycenaean Greek, in this particular case, the conjugation of the present tense active of the verb, e/xein – e/xw e/xeij e/xee h2 e/xei e/xomen e/xete e/xonsi h2 e/xousi from which we can more or less confidently derive its probable equivalent conjugation in Mycenaean Greek. As you can see, the table of conjugation of the present tense active of the verb, EKEE “to have” is reversed from that illustrated in the previous post: The reason for this is readily apparent. In order to extrapolate the most probable Mycenaean conjugation for the verb, EKEE, we need an ancient Greek alphabetic conjugation of the same verb as our point of reference or departure. There are 4 steps to this process, in two stages [1: Regression (steps 1-4) and 2: Progression (step 5)]: Regression: 1 We look for an ancient Greek alphabetic conjugation preferably in the order of the dialects as prescribed above; 2 We analyze the conjugation of the dialect we have chosen as our point of reference or departure; 3 We look for any extant grammatical forms in Mycenaean Greek of the conjugation in question. For the Mycenaean verb, EKEE, there are 3, which I refer to as attested, tagged as (A) in the Table above. These forms are found on extant tablets, and are therefore confirmed. The more attested forms there are for any conjugation or part of speech, the sounder the reconstruction is. 4 We regressively convert the conjugation into its most probable Mycenaean conjugation, wherever possible, by deriving the missing forms from their ancient Greek alphabetic counterparts. These derived forms are tagged as (D) in the Table above. Progression: 5 In so doing, we have now succeeded in progressively reconstructing the present tense active of the Mycenaean verb EKEE, “to have”, by filling in its missing components with the most probable equivalents to the Greek alphabetic conjugation. I refer to this reconstruction as progressive. In the case of the verb, EKEE, “to have”, it has proven impossible for me to reconstruct the second person singular e/xeij with any degree of certainty, so I have not attempted to. If there are any linguists expert in ancient languages who can assist me in reconstruct grammatical forms beyond my own level of expertise (which is admittedly limited to my own understanding of the Mycenaean dialect), I wholeheartedly welcome their input. However, since 3 of the 6 components of the conjugation of the Mycenaean verb EKEE are extant, i.e. attested (A), I believe that, in this instance, we can assert with some confidence that the conjugation of the verb EKEE we have progressively reconstructed, by filling in the remaining derivative forms (D), is probably accurate.
THEORY: Preamble to The Principle of Regressive Extrapolation in Progressive Reconstruction Linear B Grammar: Historical Background
By way of introduction, we need to understand that Linear B is the earliest attested extant Greek dialect, dating from ca. 1450-1200 BCE (though there may have been others we have not yet discovered), with Cypro-Minoan Linear C (ca 1200-500 BCE) following close on its heels. In order to put the historical chronology of these two dialects into proper perspective, I am re-posting here my Revised Time Line for Written Greek (Linear B, Linear C and Greek alphabet): CLICK to enlarge:
For a detailed discussion on my revised timeline for written Greek, which is highly pertinent to this post, see POST:
In order to reconstruct the paradigms of Linear B grammar in all categories (verbal, adverbial nominal, pronominal, adjectival, prepositional, proclitic, enclitic * and the like), it is necessary for me to derive these forms from their later equivalents in the ancient Greek alphabet, preferably from the dialects most closely allied with Linear B, generally accepted as being Cypro-Minoan Linear C (1200-500 B.C.) and the Cyprian, Cretan and Acrado-Cyprian alphabetic dialects of ancient Greek, as outlined in The Dialects of Ancient Greek, by C.D. Buck [Bristol Classical Press, © 1995 & 1998 (Chicago University Press: 378 pp. ISBN 1-85399-556-8] This book in particular provides inscriptions in these dialects, of which all except one are Greek alphabetic, the exception being Cypro-Minoan Linear C.
However, inscriptions in these dialects are few and far between. Given this scenario, the only other recourse I have must be to the Homeric Greek “Epic dialect”, which is not a dialect at all, but merely a concatenation of several early Greek alphabetic dialects, all of which Homer has adapted to suit his metrical needs… a rather complex subject in and of itself, which is not something I intend to address in this blog, except where such considerations enter directly into the analysis of grammatical and syntactical properties of Mycenaean Linear B. Failing regressive analysis from Cyprian, Cretan and Acrado-Cyprian on the one hand, and Epic Homeric Greek on the other, I have no recourse but to regressively extrapolate Mycenaean grammatical forms relevant to my needs from their equivalents Classical Attic-Ionic Greek.
In some instances, the reconstruction of certain Mycenaean grammatical forms is relatively easy, since these are, by and large, remarkably similar in most ancient Greek dialects. One of these is the conjugation of the Mycenaean verb EKEE, “to have”, as categorized & summarized in the previous post.
Progressive Linear B: Theory, Methodology & Practice:
In honour of the outstanding achievement of Michael Ventris (1922-1956), who single-handedly deciphered a hitherto “undecipherable” ancient script, Linear B, as being the earliest written form of ancient Greek, which Sir Arthur Evans called “Linear B”, and rightly assumed was a syllabary, but wrongly assumed was not Greek, I intend to build on his all too remarkable achievement by applying what I choose to call the principles of Progressive Linear B, a theory of Linear B grammar, syntax and vocabulary which I am putting to the test for the first time ever. After Michael Ventris’ tragic death in a fatal car crash on 6 September 1956, his loyal collaborator and disciple, Professor John Chadwick (1920-1998) of Cambridge University carried on his work, codifying the Linear B tablets, grammar and vocabulary, confirming once and for all that Mycenaean Linear B was the earliest written form of ancient Greek, predating the earliest Greek alphabet by at least 600 years.
What is Progressive Linear B?
Progressive Linear B constitutes an entirely novel theoretical approach to the syllabary, logograms, phonetics, grammar, syntax and vocabulary of Mycenaean Linear B. By applying the methodology of progressive Linear B, we may be able to reconstruct grammatical forms and vocabulary, which are nowhere attested in the approximately 6,000 extant Linear B tablets from Knossos, Pylos, Thebes, Mycenae, Chania or any other archeological sites where tablets have been discovered to date. The recovery of more tablets in the future may fill in some of the gaps in Linear B grammar and vocabulary, but the likelihood of this seems remote.
Theory, Methodology and Practice:
It is perhaps best to illustrate how I apply the reconstitutive methodology of progressive Linear B to extrapolate unattested grammatical forms from the actual forms which have been found on the tablets. With this in mind, let us turn to the verb, EKEE, to have, for the conjugation of the present tense from forms actually found on the tablets. As far as I know. These are (CLICK to enlarge):
From these three extant forms, I believe it is possible to extrapolate and reconstruct most of the remainder of the conjugation of the present tense of the verb, EKEE, “to have”, (the classical Greek and English conjugations following the reconstructed Linear B forms), with attested forms (as found on tablets) tagged with (A), and Derived forms tagged with (D), as follows:
The Verb EKEE as paradigm for the reconstruction of the present tense active (CLICK to enlarge):
As you can readily see from this reconstruction of the present tense of EKEE, I am unable to make an accurate estimation of the probable form of the second person singular with any degree of certainty, which is why I have omitted it. However, with this sole exception, I have been able to reconstitute the rest of the present tense of the verb,” to have”, into the forms they most likely would have taken in Mycenaean Greek, had any tablets been unearthed with these forms. With the conjugation of EKEE (to have) as our paradigm, I believe it is possible to proceed with the reconstruction of the present tense of all verbs ending with O in first person singular of the active (not middle!) voice .
Thus, in the paradigm for the attested (A) and derivative (D) endings of the present infinitive active & present tense active, the first person singular and plural & the second person plural are derived. Hence, the Linear B forms and their Latin transcriptions for the present infinitive active & the conjugation of the present active (with the exception of the missing second person singular) of verbs ending in “ko” are (CLICK to enlarge):
Of course, my reconstructions are always to be considered as tentative and conjectural. If anyone familiar with Linear B is at odds with my interpretative reconstructions of this or any other grammatical form in Linear B, I encourage the same to comment on my conjectures on this Blog. I will of course answer any questions, issues or doubts you may harbour over my reconstitutive grammar, which I will be gradually building on this Blog, starting with several active verbs in the present tense, based on the paradigm for the conjugation of the present tense of the verb, EKEE.
A MUST SEE! A very English Genius on UTube on the life of Michael Ventris:
Hello friends and fellow enthusiasts of Linear B. Thanks to a most timely e-mail from a dear friend and fellow Linear B enthusiast of Linear B, Rita, an archaeologist in Crete, who is learning Linear B from me, I watched the entire BBC Broadcast, A Very English Genius, on the life and devotion of Michael Ventris, the man who deciphered the ancient syllabary, Linear B, in July 1952.
Here is the link to the BBC broadcast, which I recommend in the most glowing terms to any and all of you who are truly fascinated by Linear B (CLICK on the Play button to play) :
This broadcast is in 7 parts on UTube, so you will need to click on Parts 2 to 7 in sequence to watch the entire program. Each part is just over 8 minutes long, making the broadcast about 56 minutes in duration.
Mycenaean Linear B: Level 3 (Intermediate) Syllabograms
Here are all the Mycenaean Linear B: Level 3 (Intermediate) Syllabograms (CLICK to enlarge):
I will be discussing all 16 syllabograms in 4 stages, from 3.1 to 3.4 throughout the autumn of 2013. 4 Tables of additional vocabulary at Level 3, also tagged 3.1 – 3.4, will also be posted during this period. By the end of Level 3 in the spring of 2014, the Mycenaean Linear B Vocabulary will be greatly increased from Levels 1 & 2.
Once students of Mycenaean Linear B have full mastered the syllabograms at Levels 1 & 2 (Introductory), they may proceed to Level 3 syllabograms, but not before. Level 3 Intermediate syllabograms are considerably more complex than those at Levels 1 & 2, and should not be approached until the student is thoroughly familiar with all syllabograms at Levels 1 & 2. Once the student has finished Level 3 Intermediate, she or he will be in a position to translate a number of Linear B Tablets, including that famous tablet from Pylos, PY 641-1952, the first tablet ever translated by Michael Ventris in 1952, which will in fact be the first tablet the student will be asked to translate at Level 3.
Students who began learning Linear B from the inception of this Blog in the spring of 2013 may possibly be in a position to proceed to Level 3 sometime in the winter of 2014. In the meantime, it is highly advisable not to endeavour to take this step, as we still have plenty of exercises to complete at Level 2, the last of which will consist of our first ever translation of a couple of Linear B tablets simpler than PY 641-1952. Thus, students who have mastered Levels 1 & 2 will be prepared, in the long run, to translate a number of more complex Linear B tablets by spring or summer 2014. Here again, I strongly advise each of you to proceed at your own pace, because if you try to rush yourself, you will find yourself rattled by the more complex Tablets. I know. I was myself!
Interesting item from Hurriyet:
Rock tombs dating back to 3,500 years ago have been uncovered in Bodrum’s Ortakent district, which form part of the necropolis area.
Bodrum Underwater Archeology Museum manager Emel Özkan and archeologists Banu Mete Özler and Ece Benli Bağcı are leading the excavations. The experts are still not sure if there was a settlement or not.